Last updated on July 21st, 2021 at 10:51 am

Sunifiram or DM-235 is a relatively new research chemical categorized as a nootropic or cognitive enhancing drug. It is derived from Piracetam, another very popular nootropic. Unlike racetams, Sunifiram is more potent, with data showing that it is 1000 times more powerful than Piracetam!

According to the scientific evidence available at the moment, it can boost memory, learning ability, and mood. It may also boost energy levels.

Sunifiram was developed in 2000 by scientists from the University of Firenze, Italy. It was initially developed for treating the cognitive decline symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. The research was sadly abandoned, so they didn’t publish any clinical data.

Today, Sunifiram is available as a research chemical. The FDA has not approved the use of the drug for any medicinal uses. They also do not regulate it, so people can buy from online stores as a dietary supplement.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of Sunifiram is not 100% understood. Based on its striking similarities to Piracetam, some studies suggest that it affects the brain the same way Piracetam does. No reliable human trials support the claim, though.

Based on the limited research, scientists have put across several possible mechanisms of action explaining how the nootropic can be beneficial.

First, animal studies have reported that Sunifiram improves acetylcholine activities in the brain. In a study done on mice, the drug fought scopolamine, a compound that inhibits the release of acetylcholine. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays a vital role in learning, memory, and other brain functions. This would explain how this nootropic is believed to be an effective nootropic as well as a treatment for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

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It’s also possible that Sunifiram improves learning and cognition by activating the AMPA-mediated neurotransmission system.

According to another study done on mice, Sunifiram stimulated the release of glutamate and activated the glutamate receptors. This boosts synaptic plasticity, which is essential for learning and other cognitive functions.

Uses and Benefits

Most of the uses and benefits of Sunifiram are mostly theoretical. The drug is relatively new in the scene, and it hasn’t been subjected to any reliable human trials. The uses discussed below are based on the preliminary data from limited animal studies.

  • Improves Memory and Learning

Multiple animal studies have reported Sunifiram’s ability to improve memory and learning. In some of these studies, the researchers looked at the impact of Sunifiram on mice with amnesia induced by drugs like baclofen, clonidine, and scopolamine. The researchers observed significant improvements suggesting Sunifiram may be effective in reversing memory loss issues caused by certain medications. While the results are very promising, they are far from definitive because they are limited to animal subjects. Also, the study involved subjects that had been treated with memory-impairing drugs. It’s impossible to tell whether they can boost memory in healthy individuals.

Since this nootropic can influence acetylcholine activities, it’s also possible that it can improve learning. A few studies have suggested this usage, but they were all done on mice.

Large-scale clinical trials are necessary to understand the efficacy and safety of Sunifiram fully.

  • May Reduce Pain Sensitivity

In a trial involving rats subjected to heat-related pain, the researchers reported that the mice treated with Sunifiram had a better response to the pain.

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Other than the above benefits, a few trials also claim the nootropic can increase sex drive, improve mood, and boost energy levels.

The biggest drawback with Sunifiram is the lack of extensive clinical studies, meaning we cannot say tell with absolute certainty whether the drug is as beneficial as claimed or not.

Side Effects

Again, due to the lack of sufficient clinical trials, the safety of Sunifiram remains mostly unknown. Another concern is its potency, which is reported to be 1000 times higher than Piracetam’s. Being such a powerful compound, Sunifiram may induce some serious adverse events if used recklessly.

So far, the only adverse reactions reported are headaches, increased perspiration, high body temperature, nasal stuffiness, insomnia, restlessness, forgetfulness, mental sluggishness or brain fog, anxiety, and increased sensitivity to audio and visual stimulation.

The smart thing to do is avoid using Sunifiram until we have enough scientific evidence documenting its benefits and safety. However, if you still want to use it, you should do so under the guidance of a licensed physician. Make sure to follow the recommended dosage at all times. You should also avoid using it for a prolonged period.

Consult a physician before taking the supplement if you have an existing medical condition. Pregnant and nursing mothers should avoid the drug.


There are no official dosages of this drug. The dosage guideline available at the moment is based on anecdotal experiences. Given the extreme potency of the drug, users require only small doses to feel its effects.

Most people experimenting with the drug use it in dosages of between 5 and 10mg taken two or three times per day.

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Using it in high doses or for too long can lead to tolerance so, it should be used in short cycles with breaks in between.

Can You Stack Sunifiram with Other Nootropics?

The practice of stacking multiple nootropics to boost the results has grown very popular in the last few years. Most of these stacks work quite well without causing any adverse reactions. This is especially common in people who already have vast experience with these drugs.

Theoretically, the product can also be stacked with other nootropics, but that’ll be ill-advised. There is so much about this drug that we do not know. This includes drug interactions and possible long-term side effects. It’s also a very powerful compound. For such reasons, it’s wiser to avoid combining Sunifiram with any other dietary supplements until more clinical trials on its effects and safety are published.

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  1. https://examine.com/supplements/sunifiram/
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S096808960900830X
  3. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16834757/Pharmacological_characterization_of_DM232__unifiram__and_DM235__sunifiram__new_potent_cognition_enhancers_