27Dec

Oxiracetam: Benefits, Dosage, Usage

Oxiracetam is a cognitive boosting compound belonging to the racetam family of drugs. This is the same family for drugs such as Pramiracetam, Phenylpiracetam, and the popular Piracetam. These drugs were initially developed for treating memory loss and other cognitive decline issues arising from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. However, they’re not very well-studied, so they are not used in the medical field, and they are also not approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

Piracetam is the original racetam drug. Most of the other drugs in the family, including Oxiracetam, are derived from Piracetam. It was developed in the 1970s and is believed to be quite powerful. Some trials suggest it has a bigger impact on enhancing wakefulness and alertness than the drug Phenylpiracetam. Its effects on patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia have also been studied but on a limited scale. Preliminary results point out that this product may be effective for reversing memory loss, learning impairment, and overall cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s patients.

There have also been reports that it may boost cognitive functions in healthy individuals. This explains why it is also sold as a nootropic or “smart drug.”

Unfortunately, Oxiracetam, just like other nootropics, is seriously understudied. Most of the trials investigating its effects are done on animals and not human subjects.

In the US and Canada, Oxiracetam is available as a dietary supplement. You can easily buy the drug from online stores without the need for a doctor’s prescription. It is also unregulated in Australia, UK, and other European countries.

Mechanism of Action

According to the available data, it affects the brain in several ways. First, it’s believed that Oxiracetam modulates Acetylcholine and glutamate levels. This compound interacts with the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems to increase the release of these neurotransmitters. Both Acetylcholine and glutamate are involved in various cognitive functions like learning, memory, attention, etc. Therefore, by boosting the levels of these key neurotransmitters, it reverses cognitive decline, and that’s why it is said to be effective for neurodegenerative disorders.

Oxiracetam also works by increasing cellular energy. It also boosts neuronal communication by triggering the release of D-Aspartic Acid (DAA) and modulating lipid metabolism.

Some trials also report that Oxiracetam stimulates the central nervous system. It delivers a mild stimulant effect to boost alertness and wakefulness without inducing adverse reactions like jitters, irritability, and nervousness. Of course, this is subject to the dosages used.

Uses and Benefits

According to the limited data available, it may be used for:

  • Improving Memory

Numerous studies have reported Oxiracetam’s ability to boost memory formation, retention, and retrieval. This effect hasn’t just been observed in animal studies but also in human trials involving patients with dementia. In this trial, the effects of Oxiracetam were investigated in 60 elderly patients with organic brain syndrome in a double blind study. The study also had a placebo where Piracetam was used. The patients were started with a dosage of 400mg, which was increased every week by 400mg up to 2400mg. After 6 weeks, the researchers looked at the impact of the nootropic and compared it to Piracetam. In both groups, there were significant improvements in the different tests administered, i.e., objective psychological tests and subjective tests like rating scales. It was observed that the results in the group of patients receiving Oxiracetam were significantly higher than the placebo.

This clearly shows that it can be very beneficial not just in patients with organic brain syndrome but also in patients with dementia and other similar conditions. They were also well-tolerated, so the risk of side effects is very minimal when the drug is used appropriately.

Additional research is necessary. Trials involving healthy individuals are also warranted to understand the impact of Oxiracetam on students and professionals using it as a nootropic.

  • Increasing Concentration and Focus

Oxiracetam also acts as a mild stimulant to boost focus, concentration, and attention. In one human trial of 96 elderly dementia patients, not only did Oxiracetam boost attention, but it also increased reaction times.

This suggests that Oxiracetam may be useful for enhancing one’s ability to study and complete certain tasks. The problem is that Oxiracetam has not been tested in healthy individuals. However, anecdotal evidence shows that some people are already enjoying increased mental energy, focus, and alertness from Oxiracetam.

  • Boosting Neuroprotection

It produced some neuroprotectant properties in animal studies. In one trial, Oxiracetam was administered in rats before they were injected with neurotoxins. The rats that were treated with the product showed better resistance to neurotoxicity.

The neuroprotectant effects of Oxiracetam were also put to the test in healthy volunteers who were receiving the drug scopolamine, which is known for causing memory loss. The subjects were given between 1600 and 2400mg. it reduced memory loss issues.

Based on these trials, it’s believed it could be used to prevent Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s, and other forms of dementia. It may also be effective in preventing age-related cognitive issues.

  • Promote Wakefulness

As a mild psychostimulant, it may be used for inhibiting sleep and promoting wakefulness. It works almost like a stimulant, but the risk of side effects is significantly lower when taking Oxiracetam as compared to stimulants like caffeine.

Trials show Oxiracetam achieves this by acting as a cholinergic compound. It also improves energy, metabolism, and cerebral blood flow, i.e., blood flow in the brain.

Side Effects

It is usually safe when used at the right dosages. When abused, it may produce side effects such as:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • High blood pressure
  • Restlessness

By no means is this list exhaustive. Since it is not extensively studied, its full safety profile remains unknown. Therefore, it’s crucial that you use it carefully to avoid potential long-term complications.

Do not take it without a doctor’s approval if you are already taking medications for a different condition.

Dosage

Oxiracetam is usually used in dosages between 1200 and 2400mg per day, split into two or three servings. Some trials used dosages as low as 400mg, and they still produced decent results.

New users should start with lower dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

It is available in both capsule and powder form. It can be used with or without food.

The nootropic usually crosses the blood-brain barrier within an hour and reaches peak levels in 1-3 hours.

Some reports suggest using Oxiracetam about 1 hour before studying or working to maximize its effects.

To intensify the results. it is sometimes stacked or combined with other nootropics. Some people use it with other racetam drugs like Aniracetam, while others combine it with choline drugs like Alpha GPC.

Do not stack these drugs if you have never used them before. The effects can be very overwhelming. Also, do not stack nootropics if you are treating a medical condition like Alzheimer’s. In fact, we encourage you to use these drugs under a licensed physician’s guidance if you are dealing with a medical condition.

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References

  1. https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Oxiracetam
  2. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12640-020-00169-1
  3. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/118805
23Dec

Fasoracetam: Usage, Dosage and Benefits

Fasoracetam is a “racetam” drug believed to have some cognitive boosting properties. It’s said to be a nootropic that can enhance different cognitive functions and reverse some of the symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s Disease.

Fasoracetam was developed by Nippon Shinyaku in the 1990s. The Japanese company developed the drug with the intention of treating vascular dementia, but they abandoned their research before they could complete phase 3 clinical trials. Several years later, NeuroFix bought the clinical data and restarted the trials. Today, Fasoracetam is under Aevi Genomic Medicine, which acquired the company NeuroFix. They continue to investigate the effects of Fasoracetam on anxiety, autism, ADHD, and other conditions. Most of these trials are in their early stages, so there’s still no clear evidence pinpointing the efficacy of the drug.

Fasoracetam bottle

Nonetheless, the little data available on the nootropic is very promising. Several animal studies have demonstrated some of the potential uses and benefits of this “smart drug.” There’s also a good number of people who are already taking the drug despite the lack of exhaustive clinical trials. Some of the users are reporting a few improvements in cognition and mood. Sadly, it’s hard to tell what the short and long-term effects of the drug could be without thorough clinical trials.

The nootropicis also known as NFC 1, NS-105, MDGN-001, and LAM 105. It is not approved by the FDA, but it’s available on the market as a research chemical.

Working Mechanism

Preliminary data suggests several working mechanisms of Fasoracetam. According to some trials, Fasoracetam modulates the production of key neurotransmitters to enhance your brain functions. For instance, this animal study reported Fasoracetam increased the uptake of choline. Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, on the other hand, is a neurotransmitter that aids learning, memory, and other brain functions. Therefore, an increase in choline uptake results in a boost in acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex, and this should improve your cognition.

Fasoracetam also activates metabotropic glutamate receptors or mGURs. This restores a healthy balance in the glutamate system, which means Fasoracetam may be beneficial in treating conditions such as ADHD, anxiety, and some mental disorders.

According to some in vitro data, Fasoracetam may also increase GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the cortex. This increases GABA levels in the brain and central nervous system, which may reduce anxiety and depression.

Uses and Benefits

Based on the limited data available at the moment, Fasoracetam may be useful for:

  • Improving Memory

Fasoracetam can prevent memory loss and boost memory formation, storage, and retrieval. This has been observed in several animal studies involving both healthy and unhealthy rats. For instance, in this trial involving rats treated with baclofen, Fasoracetam helped fight memory loss issues.

Anecdotal evidence also shows some improvements in memory and overall cognition. This may be explained by the increase in acetylcholine induced by the drug. The nootropic also prevents activation of GABA-B receptors, which are known to impair memory and other brain functions.

  • Relieving Anxiety and Depression

Psychiatric conditions like depression and anxiety are closely linked to unhealthy GABA and glutamate levels. Fasoracetam modulates both of these neurotransmitters to improve your mood, motivation, and a general feeling of well-being.

In this trial investigating the impact of the nootropic on learned helplessness in rats, the researchers observed powerful antidepressant effects.

Some users also report feeling calmer and more relaxed after taking the nootropic.

Additional human studies are necessary to fully understand the effects of NS105 on anxiety and depression.

  • Treating ADHD

In this trial, 30 adolescents with ADHD were placed under the nootropic to investigate the potential efficacy of the drug. The subjects were aged between 12 and 17 years, and they also had glutamatergic gene network variants affecting their mGLUr neurotransmitter signaling. At the end of the study period, the researchers noted a significant improvement in several tests. There was also no difference between the group under treatment and the placebo in terms of adverse events.

Side Effects

The nootropic is generally well tolerated when used correctly, but it still has the potential to cause adverse reactions, especially when taken in high dosages. Due to the lack of exhaustive clinical trials, Fasoracetam may pose some serious long-term risks that remain unknown.

Some of the side effects reported by a few users are fatigue, headaches, and digestive discomfort. The drug can also slow your heart rate when taken in extremely high dosages.

Stick to the recommended dosages at all times to reduce the risk of developing adverse reactions. Anyone with an existing medical condition should consult a physician before taking the nootropic. Pregnant and nursing mothers should avoid it as well.

Dosage

There are no official Fasoracetam dosages. The guideline available at the moment is based on anecdotal experience and a few of the studies done so far. Based on this data, the nootropic may be beneficial and safe in oral dosages of between 100 and 800mg. You should start low and increase the dosage if necessary.

Fasoracetam can also be used sublingually. This method requires lower dosages since most of the drug ends up in your bloodstream pretty fast. Sublingual administration exposes users to the somewhat unpleasant taste of the drug.

You can take the nootropic with or without food.

Fasoracetam is sometimes combined with other nootropics to improve the results or minimize the risk of side effects. It can be stacked with a choline source like CDP Choline.

Final Thoughts

Human trials on Fasoracetam may be limited, but it is clear that the drug has so much potential. Numerous human studies have shown its ability to treat conditions like ADHD and anxiety. Some users also report improved mood, motivation, and calmness. Animal trials also reported memory enhancement. Even more interesting is that most trials did not report any severe adverse events. Therefore, the nootropic can be very helpful, but it should be used carefully.

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References

  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02244-2
  2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322527361_Fasoracetam_in_adolescents_with_ADHD_and_glutamatergic_gene_network_variants_disrupting_mGluR_neurotransmitter_signaling
  3. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28109793/A_study_of_Fasoracetam’s_solid_state_forms:_A_potential_anti-Alzheimer_pharmaceutical.