Pterostilbene: Dosage, Usage and Benefits

Pterostilbene is an antioxidant compound found in plants such as blueberries, grape leaves, vines, and almonds. It belongs to a class of compounds known as Phytoalexins. Another very popular chemical in the same class is Resveratrol. Pterostilbene and Resveratrol are very similar, but it is said to be the more potent of the two because it has better bioavailability. There are no clinical studies comparing the potency of the two compounds, though.

Due to its antioxidant properties, it is believed to be very useful in combating various medical conditions. You can get the compound from the food sources highlighted above. Blueberries have the highest concentration of Pterostilbene.

Alternatively, you can take it through supplementation. Pterostilbene dietary supplements are quite common, and they have been linked to a number of health benefits. Sometimes you may also get the supplements under the name trans-pterostilbene.

Uses and Benefits

One of the major challenges of Pterostilbene is the lack of reliable clinical data. The compound has been linked to various health benefits, but the studies supporting these benefits are very few. Some of them are also limited to animal subjects only, so it’s unclear whether the compound is as beneficial to humans.

Nonetheless, the limited data available shows it can be useful for:

  • Preventing Neurodegeneration

Animal studies show Pterostilbene effectively fights oxidative stress caused by free radicals, which can cause neurodegeneration. The studies also report that it can improve the growth of new cells in different parts of the brain, including the hippocampus. It’s said that the nootropic increases mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to encourage growth and multiplication of neurons.

Additional studies done on cells also showed Pterostilbene could increase dopamine levels in the brain and fight monoamine oxidase B or MAO-B, which have been linked to Parkinson’s disease.

From the data, the product is not just effective for preventing neurodegeneration, but it may also reverse the condition in people who already have it. Sadly, no clinical trials have been published to support the claims.

  • Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

Many Pterostilbene supplements claim to have anti-aging benefits. According to the studies available, the compound can fight aging issues like cognitive decline. It’s neuro-protectant properties also suggest that it can protect aging people from conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, and other forms of dementia. There have also been studies reporting that it can protect users from heart diseases, and it may also help regulate blood sugar levels. All these are issues that aging people struggle with.

Hopefully, we will see more studies investigating these effects more extensively soon.

  • Supporting Weight Management

Weight management is a surprising Pterostilbene effect that was observed in one human trial and several animal studies. In the human trial, Pterostilbene was being investigated for its effects on cholesterol levels. At the end of the study, the researchers observed significant weight loss in the individuals taking Pterostilbene.

Follow up animal studies reported that Pterostilbene might aid weight loss by improving insulin boosting gut flora. This improves the digestion of food. It also increased a useful bacterium, Akkermansia muciniphila, which fights obesity, inflammation, and diabetes.

It also improves insulin sensitivity and prevents the conversion of sugars to fats. It also blocks the multiplication of fat cells.

Take note that all these effects have been observed in animal studies only.

  • Boosting Heart Health

Preliminary data shows it can boost heart health and fight various cardiovascular conditions. Its antioxidant properties are already very critical for a healthy heart. Additionally, animal studies show Pterostilbene can reduce the accumulation of bad LDL cholesterol. It also protects the heart against hardening of arteries or atherosclerosis and cor pulmonale or pulmonary heart disease.

  • Supporting Liver Functions

Pterostilbene offers antioxidant and anti-inflammation protection to the liver cells. It has even been seen to be effective for fighting fibrosis or scarring and liver inflammatory damage.

  • Fighting Inflammation

Pterostilbene’s anti-inflammation effects are not very well-studied. In some studies, the compound is said to be useful for fighting severe acute pancreatitis. In other trials, the compound did not produce significant results in patients with arthritis.

Therefore, while it may be useful for fighting pancreas inflammation, we still do not know the full scale of its impact due to the lack of clinical trials. It’s better to consult a licensed physician for a better-understood alternative.

  • Regulating Blood Sugar

Multiple studies have reported that the supplement increases insulin production and sensitivity. Therefore, the drug may be useful in reducing blood sugar. It may also increase the production of liver enzymes involved in sugar metabolism.

Sadly, no human trials have been carried to investigate the efficacy of Pterostilbene on blood sugar. It’s also not clear whether it’s better than the current medications.

Other possible benefits:

  • It may prevent vision problems.
  • It may help fight certain types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colon cancer.

Side Effects

It is generally safe and well-tolerated when used at the right dosages. However, at higher doses, Pterostilbene may produce some severe adverse reactions. For instance, some individuals experienced increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol).

Pterostilbene should be used very carefully to avoid complications. In case of any side effects, stop taking the compound and seek medical help right away.

Pregnant and nursing mothers should not use it . Anyone with a medical condition or taking any other drugs should consult a licensed physician before using Pterostilbene.


The lack of extensive clinical trials means we don’t have any official dosages for this compound. However, from anecdotal experiences, 250mg per day is considered to be the most effective and safe dosage of the product. New users should start with lower dosages of around 100mg per day.

Final Thoughts

Pterostilbene is a very promising compound, but the lack of extensive clinical trials is its biggest drawback. Not only does it make it extremely hard to pinpoint the drug’s efficacy, but it also leaves us in the dark in regards to the compound’s safety profile. For such reasons, we encourage you to consult your doctor before taking it.

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2. https://www.verywellhealth.com/the-benefits-of-pterostilbene-89504


Galantamine: Usage, Dosage, Benefits & Side Effects

Many investigative drugs are said to be effective for treating symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, but the research on most of these drugs is very limited, and that’s why they are not approved by the FDA.

Galantamine, on the other hand, is an FDA approved treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. This means it’s well studied and its efficacy and safety are very well documented. However, in addition to treating Alzheimer’s, the drug has also been linked to a number of other health benefits that have not been proved by clinical trials. For instance, a few trials show that it may be effective for diabetes, autism, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. However, the quality of these trials is very questionable, and that’s why the FDA has only approved the drug for improving memory, learning, and awareness associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

In Russia and Europe, Galantamine was traditionally used as a remedy for myopathy or muscular weakness and sensory and motor dysfunction caused by central nervous system issues.

Galantamine is currently available under the brand names Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine, and Nivalin.

Mechanism of Action

Galantamine is well-studied for its effects on Alzheimer’s disease. According to multiple studies, Galantamine works by preventing the actions of cholinesterase. This is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Low acetylcholine levels have been linked to Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia. Therefore, by preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine, Galantamine makes sure that you have enough acetylcholine. Remember that this neurotransmitter is involved in memory, learning ability, and other cognitive functions. Therefore, Galantamine doesn’t just help to stop Alzheimer’s and dementia, but it will also improve the quality of life of the recovering patient by improving their cognition.

There have also been reports that since it reverses dementia by boosting cognitive functions, the drug could also be effective as a nootropic in healthy adults. There is not enough clinical data to support the claims, though.

Outside Alzheimer’s research, Galantamine is not extensively studied. Therefore, its mechanism of action in producing other effects is not well understood.

Uses and Benefits

  • Treating Alzheimer’s Disease

Galantamine is an FDA-approved treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The drug is especially effective when used early, i.e., as soon as the condition is diagnosed, and it should be continued for more than 1 year. Continued treatment prevents cognitive decline and maintains a good quality of life. This means the patients will still be able to carry out most of their daily tasks independently. One study reported that treatment with Galantamine prevented cognitive decline for up to 3 years since the treatment was initiated. It even reduced the need for nursing home placement. Therefore, it’s best to get the diagnosis and therapy as soon as possible.

Galantamine’s impact on Alzheimer’s is not fully understood, but scientists believe it increases acetylcholine concentration by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter. It also improves cholinergic neurotransmitter functions and hippocampal activities. This is especially useful for maintaining a good memory.

Several studies also suggest that Galantamine prevents the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques. Long-term treatment with Galantamine is also known to improve neuronal connections.

Galantamine has been compared to other medications like donepezil. The data shows there isn’t much to separate the two. However, Galantamine is the more cost-effective treatment than most conventional cholinesterase inhibiting medications.

  • Treating Mild Cognitive Impairment

Mild cognitive impairment is a condition characterized by memory failure and diminished cognitive functions. Studies show Galantamine improves working and episodic memory.

Galantamine may be effective for MCI due to its ability to improve cholinergic functions. It also boosts IGF-s levels in the brain, which encourages the growth of new brain cells.

  • Boosting Antioxidant Protection

Oxidative stress has been linked to conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, diabetes, Down’s Syndrome, and cancer. Galantamine provides antioxidant protection to fight oxidative stress caused by free radicals. It protects brain cells against oxidative damage to maintain optimal brain functions.

Galantamine works by protecting mitochondria and activating NRF2.

  • Reducing Inflammation

Several studies report that it modifies visfatin, adiponectin, and NF-kB to produce anti-inflammatory effects. It also activates cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. This reduces overexposure to inflammation and may also block the production of cytokines.

Additional human trials are necessary to determine the effectiveness of Galantamine as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Other purported uses of Galantamine include:

  • Treating diabetes
  • Treating obesity
  • Fighting toxins
  • Treating the symptoms of autism
  • Combating schizophrenia
  • Relieving symptoms of arthritis

Side Effects

Galantamine is generally safe and well-tolerated when used as prescribed.

In some cases, the drug can produce adverse reactions. Most of these are usually mild, e.g., nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, loss of appetite, weight loss, and headaches.

In rare cases, the drug induces severe adverse reactions like slowed heart rate, skin rash, stomach ulcers, seizures, trouble urinating, blurred vision, depression, confusion, and tremors. Stop using the drug and consult a physician right away if you experience any severe side effects.

Before using it , discuss your medical history with a medical practitioner. Make sure to point out any medications you could be using as well as your allergies.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women are discouraged from using this drug.


The dosages vary depending on various factors. Your doctor will help you find the appropriate dosage for your unique situation. Make sure to stick to that dosage at all times.

In case you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. However, if it’s almost time for your next dose, do not double the dosage. Just skip the missed dose.

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  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/galantamine-oral-route/precautions/drg-20067458?p=1
  2. https://www.alzforum.org/therapeutics/galantamine
  3. https://reference.medscape.com/drug/razadyne-galantamine-343059
  4. https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/6134/smpc#gref

Oxiracetam: Benefits, Dosage, Usage

Oxiracetam is a cognitive boosting compound belonging to the racetam family of drugs. This is the same family for drugs such as Pramiracetam, Phenylpiracetam, and the popular Piracetam. These drugs were initially developed for treating memory loss and other cognitive decline issues arising from neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. However, they’re not very well-studied, so they are not used in the medical field, and they are also not approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

Piracetam is the original racetam drug. Most of the other drugs in the family, including Oxiracetam, are derived from Piracetam. It was developed in the 1970s and is believed to be quite powerful. Some trials suggest it has a bigger impact on enhancing wakefulness and alertness than the drug Phenylpiracetam. Its effects on patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia have also been studied but on a limited scale. Preliminary results point out that this product may be effective for reversing memory loss, learning impairment, and overall cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s patients.

There have also been reports that it may boost cognitive functions in healthy individuals. This explains why it is also sold as a nootropic or “smart drug.”

Unfortunately, Oxiracetam, just like other nootropics, is seriously understudied. Most of the trials investigating its effects are done on animals and not human subjects.

In the US and Canada, Oxiracetam is available as a dietary supplement. You can easily buy the drug from online stores without the need for a doctor’s prescription. It is also unregulated in Australia, UK, and other European countries.

Mechanism of Action

According to the available data, it affects the brain in several ways. First, it’s believed that Oxiracetam modulates Acetylcholine and glutamate levels. This compound interacts with the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems to increase the release of these neurotransmitters. Both Acetylcholine and glutamate are involved in various cognitive functions like learning, memory, attention, etc. Therefore, by boosting the levels of these key neurotransmitters, it reverses cognitive decline, and that’s why it is said to be effective for neurodegenerative disorders.

Oxiracetam also works by increasing cellular energy. It also boosts neuronal communication by triggering the release of D-Aspartic Acid (DAA) and modulating lipid metabolism.

Some trials also report that Oxiracetam stimulates the central nervous system. It delivers a mild stimulant effect to boost alertness and wakefulness without inducing adverse reactions like jitters, irritability, and nervousness. Of course, this is subject to the dosages used.

Uses and Benefits

According to the limited data available, it may be used for:

  • Improving Memory

Numerous studies have reported Oxiracetam’s ability to boost memory formation, retention, and retrieval. This effect hasn’t just been observed in animal studies but also in human trials involving patients with dementia. In this trial, the effects of Oxiracetam were investigated in 60 elderly patients with organic brain syndrome in a double blind study. The study also had a placebo where Piracetam was used. The patients were started with a dosage of 400mg, which was increased every week by 400mg up to 2400mg. After 6 weeks, the researchers looked at the impact of the nootropic and compared it to Piracetam. In both groups, there were significant improvements in the different tests administered, i.e., objective psychological tests and subjective tests like rating scales. It was observed that the results in the group of patients receiving Oxiracetam were significantly higher than the placebo.

This clearly shows that it can be very beneficial not just in patients with organic brain syndrome but also in patients with dementia and other similar conditions. They were also well-tolerated, so the risk of side effects is very minimal when the drug is used appropriately.

Additional research is necessary. Trials involving healthy individuals are also warranted to understand the impact of Oxiracetam on students and professionals using it as a nootropic.

  • Increasing Concentration and Focus

Oxiracetam also acts as a mild stimulant to boost focus, concentration, and attention. In one human trial of 96 elderly dementia patients, not only did Oxiracetam boost attention, but it also increased reaction times.

This suggests that Oxiracetam may be useful for enhancing one’s ability to study and complete certain tasks. The problem is that Oxiracetam has not been tested in healthy individuals. However, anecdotal evidence shows that some people are already enjoying increased mental energy, focus, and alertness from Oxiracetam.

  • Boosting Neuroprotection

It produced some neuroprotectant properties in animal studies. In one trial, Oxiracetam was administered in rats before they were injected with neurotoxins. The rats that were treated with the product showed better resistance to neurotoxicity.

The neuroprotectant effects of Oxiracetam were also put to the test in healthy volunteers who were receiving the drug scopolamine, which is known for causing memory loss. The subjects were given between 1600 and 2400mg. it reduced memory loss issues.

Based on these trials, it’s believed it could be used to prevent Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s, and other forms of dementia. It may also be effective in preventing age-related cognitive issues.

  • Promote Wakefulness

As a mild psychostimulant, it may be used for inhibiting sleep and promoting wakefulness. It works almost like a stimulant, but the risk of side effects is significantly lower when taking Oxiracetam as compared to stimulants like caffeine.

Trials show Oxiracetam achieves this by acting as a cholinergic compound. It also improves energy, metabolism, and cerebral blood flow, i.e., blood flow in the brain.

Side Effects

It is usually safe when used at the right dosages. When abused, it may produce side effects such as:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • High blood pressure
  • Restlessness

By no means is this list exhaustive. Since it is not extensively studied, its full safety profile remains unknown. Therefore, it’s crucial that you use it carefully to avoid potential long-term complications.

Do not take it without a doctor’s approval if you are already taking medications for a different condition.


Oxiracetam is usually used in dosages between 1200 and 2400mg per day, split into two or three servings. Some trials used dosages as low as 400mg, and they still produced decent results.

New users should start with lower dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

It is available in both capsule and powder form. It can be used with or without food.

The nootropic usually crosses the blood-brain barrier within an hour and reaches peak levels in 1-3 hours.

Some reports suggest using Oxiracetam about 1 hour before studying or working to maximize its effects.

To intensify the results. it is sometimes stacked or combined with other nootropics. Some people use it with other racetam drugs like Aniracetam, while others combine it with choline drugs like Alpha GPC.

Do not stack these drugs if you have never used them before. The effects can be very overwhelming. Also, do not stack nootropics if you are treating a medical condition like Alzheimer’s. In fact, we encourage you to use these drugs under a licensed physician’s guidance if you are dealing with a medical condition.

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  1. https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Oxiracetam
  2. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12640-020-00169-1
  3. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/118805

Agmatine Sulfate: Usage, Dosage and Benefits

Agmatine Sulfate is the supplemental form of Agmatine. Agmatine, on the other hand, is a very common chemical found in animals, plants, and bacteria. Even humans naturally produce this compound from an amino acid known as L-Arginine. The chemical acts as a neurotransmitter found in neurons. According to some scientists, the chemical affects various parts of the brain. It interacts with different receptors to produce different effects. It has been linked to a number of health benefits ranging from cognitive enhancing benefits to improved athletic performance, enhanced mood, and stress relief. However, the research backing these effects is very minimal.

Supplements like this one have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for any medical uses. They are also unregulated, which means you can easily buy them from online and other stores, but the quality of the compound may vary from one vendor to another.

Working Mechanism

Scientists have put across several possible working mechanisms of Agmatine. According to some data, the nootropic interacts with several enzymes that play a key role in the production and functioning of Nitric Oxide. Research suggests it inhibits two enzymes, iNOS, and nNOS. iNOS is involved in the production of Nitric Oxide to support the immune system. However, at high levels, it can trigger inflammation, which can lead to serious medical complications. It prevents this by inhibiting iNOS.

nNOS, on the other hand, supports the communication of neurons, but at high levels, it prevents the growth and repair of neurons, which can lead to neurodegenerative issues. This partly explains why supplements are said to be a possible solution for neurodegenerative disorders like dementia.

Finally, Agmatine increases eNOS enzymes, which facilitate the vasodilation of blood vessels. This increases the flow of blood, ensuring that cells and tissues are getting sufficient oxygen and nutrients. It also helps to lower blood pressure.

It is also known to affect other parts of the brain. For instance, some trials report that it blocks NMDA receptors to fight neuron damage and death caused by glutamate toxicity.

Agmatine also prevents the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine from binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Agmatine binds to these receptors hence allowing your brain to make use of acetylcholine.

Animal studies also show it can increase beta-endorphins by activating imidazoline receptors. An increase in beta-endorphins improves one’s response to stress, fear, and pain.

These are just but a few of the suggested mechanisms of action of this chemical. It’s critical that you understand the chemical has only been tested in animals and cells. Therefore, its full effects on humans are still not 100% understood.

Uses and Benefits

According to the preliminary data we have at the moment, Agmatine Sulfate may be useful for the following conditions:

  • Mental Health

From animal studies, it was seen to improve subjects’ responses to stress, anxiety, and depression. These effects have not been studied in humans, so we don’t know whether the drug can produce similar results in adults with the same conditions.

It is said to be effective for these conditions by boosting adenylate cyclase levels in the prefrontal cortex of animals. Low levels of this enzyme have been linked to depression, so it helps prevent it by increasing the enzyme.

In addition to that, Agamatine increases NRF2 to protect the brain cells against cortisol.

  • Pain

Agmatine may decrease hypersensitivity to pain. In some animal studies, the chemical reduced neuropathic pain by blocking NMDA receptors and inhibiting the activation of nitric oxide synthase.

The effectiveness of the drug for pain management in humans remains unknown since the drug has not been subjected to any reliable clinical trials. Therefore, it’s best to consult a physician before using agmatine sulfate for this purpose.

  • Brain Health

It could be a potential treatment for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, seizures, stroke, and nerve damage. It can also prevent these conditions.

Agmatine sulfate is believed to be effective for Alzheimer’s disease because it fights the buildup of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles by improving insulin signaling.

For seizures, agmatine sulfate was seen to be effective in mice where it blocked NMDA receptors, which have been linked to the condition.

It also improves nerve repair and growth by inhibiting nNOS.

None of these benefits have been confirmed in human trials, so consume this data with a grain of salt.

  • Muscle Growth

In one animal trial involving rats, Agmatine stimulates the secretion of Luteinizing Hormone, increasing the production of testosterone. Testosterone plays a vital role in the growth of lean muscle mass, fat loss, sex drive, and other body functions.

Agmatine also improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in the muscles.

This explains why agmatine sulfate has been linked to improved athletic performance.

Other possible uses of agmatine sulfate include:

  • Treating inflammation
  • Easing alcohol and morphine withdrawal
  • Treating atherosclerotic lesions (hardening of arteries)
  • Weight management
  • Improving insulin sensitivity
  • Treating symptoms of herniated disc
  • Treating psychiatric conditions like Schizophrenia

Side Effects

Agmatine can produce side effects like:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach upset

It should not be used with alcohol as it increases the risk of getting ulcers. To avoid drug interactions, consult a licensed physician before taking agmatine sulfate if you are already using other medications.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid it.


There are no official dosages. The appropriate dosage could vary depending on the condition you are treating, your age, and health status. For instance, to treat neuropathic pain, dosages between 1 and 2.5g per day were used in most studies.

Consult a licensed medical practitioner for a more appropriate dosage guideline. They will also help you identify other possible alternatives to agmatine sulfate.

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  1. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/circulationaha.105.602532
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12543244/
  3. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49078-0

The 3 Best Nootropics for Energy and Motivation

Nootropic supplements, sometimes referred to as brain-boosting supplements, were developed to enhance the brain’s cognitive functions. Aimed at those with declining health, such as the elderly, or those with mentally demanding professions, nootropics have only grown in popularity over the years. The perceived benefits claimed by many nootropic brands can include anything from memory enhancement and positive mood boost to an increase in motivation and energy.

Mind Lab Pro

One of the few Universal Nootropics currently available, Mind Lab Pro’s nootropic supplement aims to enhance several cognitive pathways that boost an individual’s overall mental function. We consider it as the best nootropic for energy and motivation. Using 11 clinically tested and research-backed supplements, Mind Lab Pro provides an all-around brain booster that is safe and effective.


Mind Lab Pro’s Universal Nootropic optimizes brain function to help individuals reach their peak cognitive performance ability. Combining their 11 different, brain-boosting ingredients provides both an immediate and long-term boost in both the health and function of the brain. Other benefits of the Universal Nootropic include:

  • Energize mental abilities in a similar way that stimulants do, without the crash, by boosting brain cell formation with Citicoline
  • Enhance cognitive processing under stress with Bacopa Monnieri.
  • Increase mental clarity, focus, and energy with Maritime Pine Bark Extract.

Recommended Dosage

The standard recommended dosage of the Universal Nootropic is 1 to 2 capsules in the morning or early afternoon. As the body acclimates to the supplement, the dosage can be increased to 4 capsules a day, but no more than that is advised.

Overall, the best nootropic for energy and motivation is the one that works best for the individual. There is no one-size-fits-all in the world of supplements as every body metabolizes the ingredients differently, and the only way to truly know which one will work the best is through trial and error.

While there are many nootropics, and many with similar benefits, some tend to stand out more than others. For increased energy and motivation, the following nootropics are the highest-rated and considered the best overall.

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Developed by neuroscientists, NooCube uses an array of natural, clinically tested ingredients to boost the brain’s cognitive function. Its ingredients include seven different herbal supplements and amino acids that support healthy communication between brain cells.


Each of the seven different ingredients included in NooCube’s nootropic formula has been put through rigorous testing for both safety and effectiveness. All have exhibited positive effects in scientific research trials in treating a host of cognitive ailments from memory loss to cell damage. The combination of nootropics that are included in the NooCube’s supplement provides the user with a variety of benefits, including:

  • Increasing mental energy and the ability to focus with the amino acid L-tyrosine.
  • Improving the blood flow to the brain in order to feel more alert and energized with Oat Straw.
  • Enhancing an individual’s overall mood to relaxed alertness with L-theanine.

Recommended Dosage

The best way to take this combined nootropic is with the first meal of the day. It is recommended to start out taking just two capsules, and after the body has gotten used to the supplement, the dosage can be increased to three or four capsules a day.

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Performance Lab – Energy

The Performance Lab’s Energy supplement combines the brain-boosting power of a nootropic with the energizing effects of a stimulant, all without the crash associated with the typical caffeine-style stims. It includes a combination of five amino acids and antioxidants that work together to provide the body with a sustainable source of energy.


The Energy supplement from Performance Lab works by enhancing the mitochondrial function in cells to give the body clear, clean energy to keep an individual going for hours without any crashing. Some of the potential benefits of the supplement include:

  • Boost the production of cell energy with Acetyl-L-Carnitine.
  • Enhances the amount of energy obtained from food and how quickly it can be used in the body with the vitamin CoQ10
  • Enhances an individual’s metabolism and allowing it to produce more energy with black pepper extract.

Recommended Dosage

The Performance Lab’s Energy supplement can be taken once after waking and once midday. An individual can take 1 to 2 capsules each time, with no more than four taken a day. It is recommended, for the best results, to take the supplement daily.


  1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26618715/
  2. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/experience-engineering/202006/study-finds-ubiquinol-reduces-fatigue-in-healthy-people


Phenylpiracetam: Dosage, Benefits and Usage

Phenylpiracetam is a phenylated derivative of Piracetam. In other words, it is a form of Piracetam with a phenyl group, which gives it an extra edge over other similar drugs. The phenyl group increases Phenypiracetam’s bioavailability, i.e., its ability to be absorbed once ingested. It also boosts the molecule’s ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In essence, it allows the molecule to get into the brain more efficiently to produce the desired effects.

Phenylpiracetam, as you can already tell, belongs to a family of drugs called racetams. These drugs have been linked to a number of cognitive-enhancing abilities. It’s believed that they can boost learning ability, attention, and memory formation, storage, and retrieval. Some studies also suggest that racetams like Phenylpiracetams can treat the symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s diseases and dementia. It has also been linked to anti-depression and anti-anxiety effects.

However, like most of the other nootropics, Phenylpiracetam is not very well-studied. Most of the trials involve animal subjects only. There are a few clinical studies, but they are not of the highest quality since a majority of them have small sample sizes, and they lack control groups.

The Food and Drug Administration has not approved Phenylpiracetam for any medical uses. They also haven’t banned it, so technically, it is legal. Most people purchase it as a dietary supplement from online stores. In Canada, Phenylpiracetam is not legally sold, but people can import it for personal use. The only places where Phenylpiracetam is legalized for medical uses is in Russia and a few European countries.

You should know that Phenylpiracetam is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, so do not use it if you are planning to participate in a professional sport.

Phenylpiracetam is also identified by the brand names Phenotropil and Carphedon.

Mechanism of Action

Phenylpiracetam’s exact mechanism of action is not 100% understood, but scientists have several hypotheses detailing how the drug affects the brain.

Phenylpiracetam has a very similar structure as Piracetam except for the phenyl group. This means the drug’s effects on the brain are almost identical to Piracetam’s. Phenylpiracetam is, however, fast-acting thanks to the phenyl group. The drug can be detected in the brain within half an hour of ingestion.

When it gets to the brain, Phenylpiracetam can increase dopamine, GABA, and serotonin levels. These are key neurotransmitters involved in different functions, including controlling your mood and emotions. An increase in serotonin and dopamine is the reason for Phenylpiracetam’s anti-anxiety and anti-depression effects.

According to this study, Phenylpiracetam can also increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This supports neurogenesis, or the development of brain cells to boost memory and other brain functions.

It may also boost cognition by increasing acetylcholine levels, a neurotransmitter involved in learning, attention, and memory formation.

Phenylpiracetam may also affect NMDA receptors and norepinephrine levels.

Uses and Benefits

Keep in mind that the following potential benefits are based on limited trials.

  • Improves Memory

Both animal and human trials have reported Phenylpiracetam’s ability to improve memory formation and retrieval. The biggest challenge here is that most of these trials were conducted on subjects whose memory and other cognitive functions are affected by certain conditions, e.g., asthenia, stroke, organic brain lesions. Therefore, it’s hard to determine whether the same effects can be observed in healthy people.

  • Supports Brain Recovery

In this trial, scientists set out to investigate the efficacy of Phenotropil on patients recovering from a stroke. The study involved 400 ischemic stroke patients. They were given a dosage of 400mg per day, and then their neurologic functions were assessed using different tests. The results showed the patients who were under Phenotropil had significantly better neurologic activities than the control group.

Additional studies also show that Phenotropil can aid brain recovery in patients with encephalopathy caused by acute organic lesions and gliomas.

  • Combats Depression and Anxiety

Phenylpiracetam increases GABA receptors. It also boosts serotonin and dopamine levels. It makes sense that the drug can relieve anxiety and depression since all these chemicals are key for improved mood and motivation.

Trials also show Phenylpiracetam decreases depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with brain damage induced by stroke and surgery. It was also effective in heart disease patients experiencing anxiety and depression.

An animal study done on rats with drug-induced psychosis also showed Phenotropil could reduce both anxiety and depression.

  • Increases Energy Levels

The fact that Phenylpiracetam is banned by the world anti-doping agency suggests it has some performance-enhancing effects. Studies show that it can also act as a psychostimulant to improve your mental energy, stamina, and alertness.

Phenylpriacetam’s effects on energy and stamina have been investigated in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and ischemia. The scientists observed significant improvements after just one month. The results got even better in the second and third months. The trial used dosages of 100mg.

Other possible benefits of Phenylpiracetam include:

  • It may support weight loss.
  • May treat epilepsy when used alongside anti-seizure drugs.
  • May boost immune response.

Side Effects

Phenylpiracetam may produce several side effects, including irritability, insomnia, headaches, increased aggression, sleep disturbance, and brain fog.

Some people have also complained of emotional instability and depression when using Phenylpiracetam. Due to the lack of extensive clinical trials, it’s unclear whether the drug is the source of this issue or it could be due to other factors. Whatever the case, you should stop taking the drug right away if you notice any of these side effects.

The incidence rate of adverse reactions is generally very low.

Consult a physician before taking Phenotropil if you are taking other medications to avoid drug interactions.


Phenylpiracetam is available in capsule and powder form. The ideal dosage ranges from 100 to 200mg taken three times per day. New users should start with 100mg and only increase the dosage if it is necessary.

To avoid adverse reactions and tolerance, cycle the drug and do not take it in high dosages.

Some people combine Phenylpiracetam with other nootropics in “stacks” to intensify the results. For instance, it is sometimes used alongside Alpha GPC or Sulbutiamine. Avoid taking these stacks if you don’t have any experience with the drugs.

Final Thoughts

Phenylpiracetam can be very beneficial despite the serious insufficiency of clinical trials. To be on the safe side, make sure you take it in the right dosages and for the short term.

Consult a licensed physician if you are thinking of using it to treat a medical condition.

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  1. https://selfhacked.com/blog/phenylpiracetam-dosage/
  2. https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Phenylpiracetam
  3. https://molecularbrain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13041-018-0357-8

Sulbutiamine: Dosage, Usage and Side Effects

Sulbutiamine is a fat-soluble synthetic form of Vitamin B1 or Thiamine. It was developed in the 1960s by Japanese scientists. The compound consists of two Vitamin B1 molecules bound together.  When ingested, Sulbutiamine crosses the blood-brain barrier and increases the levels of Thiamine in the brain. In doing so, it’s believed that the drug combats fatigue and weakness. It also improves athletic performance and may support several cognitive functions.

It is also known by the brand names Arcalion and Enerion. It’s used in France to fight fatigue. In the US, Sulbutiamine is sold as a dietary supplement, so you don’t need a physician’s prescription to buy it. However, the FDA issued some warnings and added the compound to the dietary supplement ingredient advisory list urging manufacturers not to use it.

The available scientific evidence on Sulbutiamine is very limited, but it has some very promising data. According to these studies, not only can Sulbutiamine fight fatigue and general weakness, but it can also enhance your cognition and digestion. Some trials even claim it may be effective in treating some of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Sulbutiamine jar

Mechanism of Action

Sulbutiamine is made by binding two thiamine molecules using a sulfur group. This gives the compound a very unique structure with excellent bioavailability. Unlike Theamine itself, which is water-soluble, the nootropic is fat-soluble, and it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier to get into your brain. Here, it boosts thiamine and thiamine triphosphate levels to produce some of the effects the drug is known for.

Trials have also shown that it influences the activities of certain neurotransmitters. For instance, it improves the activities of glutamate and dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. It also enhances the activities of glutamate on dopamine to enhance mental health.

This study also showed it has some antioxidant properties. It increases glutathione, which prevents the death of brain cells. This explains why some researchers claim Sulbutiamine is effective for fighting neurodegenerative disorders.

Uses and Benefits

It is not very well-studied. Nonetheless, preliminary reports show it can be useful for:

  • Fighting Fatigue

Several studies have pointed out Sulbutiamine’s effectiveness in fighting different forms of fatigue. In one trial, scientists looked at the impact of the supplement in fighting weakness caused by infectious disease. The subjects were treated with Sulbutiamine and an anti-infective medication. After 15 days, approximately 52% of the patients had experienced improved asthenic symptoms. They concluded that Sulbutiamine could be a good adjunct for some anti-infective treatments. The scientists recommended additional studies.

In another trial, 20 multiple sclerosis patients were given 400mg of it every day for 2 months. The objective was to see the impact of Sulbutiamine on fatigue, a very common side effect of Multiple Sclerosis. At the end of the study period, the energy levels among the patients increased significantly.

It has also been compared to other nootropics or “smart drugs.” In this trial, Piracetam, a popular nootropic belonging to the racetam family, was used in a placebo. The subjects had asthenic disorders induced by mild craniocerebral trauma. The results showed Sulbutiamine was more effective than Piracetam in fighting fatigue and boosting energy.

  • Improving Memory and Cognition

Thiamine deficiency is linked to memory dysfunction and some cognitive disorders. Sulbutiamine boosts thiamine levels in the brain to reverse these effects. The drug has been tested on animals and humans, and it produced very promising results. In this trial involving mice, Itwas administered at dosages of 300mg per kg for 10 days. The results showed significant improvements in memory formation. They also observed increased hippocampal cholinergic activity, meaning it can improve choline activities to enhance the functions of the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

The nootropic was also tested in rats with spatial delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMTS) task and object recognition task at dosages of 25mg per kg. While it didn’t affect memory in DNMTS, it did enhance object recognition. It also reduced the amnesic effects of dizocilpine.

In one small human trial, it was used alongside donepezil in 26 patients with early and moderate Alzheimer’s disease. The scientists reported Sulbutiamine to be a potentially useful adjuvant to anticholinesterase drugs in treating patients with early-stage and moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Enhancing Mood

A few trials show Sulbutmiane can enhance mood and fight anxiety by improving glutamate and dopamine activities in the brain. These are neurotransmitters linked to pleasure, reward, and other functions.

Further clinical research is necessary.

  • Treating Erectile Dysfunction

In this human trial, 20 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction were given it for 30 days. At the end of the study, erectile function improved significantly in 16 of the 20 patients. Cavernous arterial blood flow also improved in 3 of the 6 patients with arterial issues.

Therefore, it could be an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction, but we still need more clinical trials to look into the drug.

Some of the other possible benefits are:

  • It offers antioxidant protection.
  • It may reduce indigestion.
  • It may help treat diabetic neuropathy.
  • May improve mental alertness.

Side Effects

Sulbutiamine is generally well-tolerated by most users. Cases of side effects are rare but still very possible. Some people have reported headaches, skin-related issues, mild agitation, sleep disturbance, and stomach upset.

Most of the side effects are linked to high dosages, so you should be able to avoid them by following the given guideline. In case the side effects persist, stop taking the drug, and seek medical help right away.

Do not use Sulbutiamine without a doctor’s approval if you have an existing medical condition. Pregnant and nursing mothers should avoid using the drug.


The ideal Sulbutiamine dosages range from 200 to 600mg per day, split into 2 or 3 servings. Start with the lowest dosage and increase it only if it’s necessary.

Do not take Sulbutiamine for more than 4 weeks.

People using Sulbutiamine as a dietary supplement can combine it with other nootropics for better results. Some people mix it with a choline smart-drug like Alpha GPC. It can also be combined with a Huperzine A and a racetam drug such as Aniracetam.

Due to the lack of extensive clinical trials on nootropics, it’s critical that users mix these drugs very carefully to avoid long-term medical complications. You may also want to consult a physician before combining these research drugs.

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  1. https://examine.com/supplements/sulbutiamine/
  2. https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB13416
  3. https://www.drugs.com/international/sulbutiamine.html

Huperzine A: Usage, Benefits & Dosage

Huperzine A is a dietary supplement extracted from a Chinese plant called Huperzia Serrata or Chinese club moss. Chinese club moss is a traditional medicine used to reduce inflammation, sharpen memory, and deliver other health benefits.

It captured the attention of Alzheimer’s research scientists who reported that the compound could reverse the cognitive decline issues associated with neurodegenerative disorders like dementia. According to some preliminary data, Huperzine A can inhibit the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine. By combating this enzyme, it effectively promotes the actions of acetylcholine to improve memory, attention, and learning ability.

Huperzine A jar

There have also been reports that Huperzine A could be an effective memory booster in healthy individuals. That’s why the drug is also sold as a nootropic. However, the scientific evidence backing its effectiveness for this purpose is very limited.

It is also known by the names HupA, Huperzine, Selagine, and Huperzina A.

Uses and Benefits of Huperzine A

According to the limited scientific data available at the moment, it may be beneficial for:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

Huperzine A is believed to be a potential treatment for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Other than treating the condition, it may also help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s in people who are already at a predisposed risk.

Huperzine A might be useful for this purpose due to its impact on the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The compound reduces the activities of the chemical Cholinesterase. This increases the levels of acetylcholine hence improving key cognitive functions. In doing so, Huperzine A reverses Alzheimer’s symptoms such as memory loss, poor concentration, and learning impairment.

The biggest challenge with Huperzine A is the lack of large-scale human trials to support its efficacy. There have been a few human studies involving subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, but these studies are not of the highest quality. For instance, this trial involving 454 Alzheimer’s patients reported improved cognitive functions and functional performance without any adverse events, but the study had several shortcomings. In the end, the researchers recommended more rigorous and randomized trials for more reliable results.

A few studies have also produced contradicting results showing the product did not have a significant impact on the cognitive functions of Alzheimer’s patients.

It’s clear that the only way to know how beneficial Huperzine A might be for Alzheimer’s patients is through thorough clinical trials. They will also help us understand the safety profile of the drug better. Hopefully, we’ll see more of these trials in the near future.

  • Memory Enhancement

Huperzine A may boost memory and cognition in healthy individuals, including students and professionals. It can also promote normal cognitive functions in aging people, a population where age-related cognitive decline is very common.

Of course, these claims stem from the reported Huperzine A’s mechanism of action that involves increasing the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The only problem is that there haven’t been many clinical trials investigating this effect. Only one trial has reported the memory enhancement abilities of Huperzine A in healthy individuals. The trial had a very small sample size of just 34 adolescent students.

In addition to the above uses, Huperzine A is also purported to be beneficial for:

  • Treating psychiatric disorders like depression and Schizophrenia
  • Increasing mental alertness and energy
  • Improving neuroprotection
  • Fighting cocaine use disorder
  • Fighting glutamate toxicity
  • Treating myasthenia gravis. An autoimmune disorder causing rapid fatigue and weakness of muscles

Side Effects

Huperzine A is generally safe and well-tolerated when taken appropriately.

In some rare cases, this nootropic can produce side effects like blurred vision, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, sweating, nausea, slurred speech, restlessness, dizziness, high blood pressure, slowed heart rate, sleep disturbance, and loss of appetite. The safety profile of Huperzine A is not known 100%, but reports show the risk of adverse reactions increase when the drug is abused. Long-term effects of the drug are also not known.

As a safety precaution, pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid this drug. Individuals with existing medical conditions like seizure disorder, stomach ulcers, and cardiovascular diseases are also advised against using Huperzine A. In summary, do not use this drug without a doctor’s approval if you have any medical condition.


Huperzine A is usually administered orally, but you can also use it through injections. There are no official dosages that are guaranteed to be safe and effective for everyone. Based on anecdotal experiences and a few of the available studies, a dosage of around 100mcg taken twice daily is said to be most effective for memory enhancement. For Alzheimer’s disease, dosages of between 300mcg and 500mcg taken twice per day are recommended.

To treat Myasthenia Gravis, Huperzine A is administered through intramuscular injections. The dosages used here are typically low. You should only use Huperzine A for this purpose with a doctor’s permission and supervision.

Final Thoughts

This product is a drug with so much potential but not enough clinical data backing it. For that reason, we’ll encourage you to speak to a licensed physician about a possible alternative, especially if you are looking to treat a medical condition like Alzheimer’s disease or Myasthenia Gravis.

For the people who want to use it for its potential nootropic benefits, make sure to take it in the right dosages and for short-term. Stop using the drug if you experience any severe side effects.

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  1. https://www.alzforum.org/therapeutics/huperzine
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/expert-answers/huperzine-a/faq-20058259
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/huperzine-a