Pterostilbene: Dosage, Usage and Benefits

Pterostilbene is an antioxidant compound found in plants such as blueberries, grape leaves, vines, and almonds. It belongs to a class of compounds known as Phytoalexins. Another very popular chemical in the same class is Resveratrol. Pterostilbene and Resveratrol are very similar, but it is said to be the more potent of the two because it has better bioavailability. There are no clinical studies comparing the potency of the two compounds, though.

Due to its antioxidant properties, it is believed to be very useful in combating various medical conditions. You can get the compound from the food sources highlighted above. Blueberries have the highest concentration of Pterostilbene.

Alternatively, you can take it through supplementation. Pterostilbene dietary supplements are quite common, and they have been linked to a number of health benefits. Sometimes you may also get the supplements under the name trans-pterostilbene.

Uses and Benefits

One of the major challenges of Pterostilbene is the lack of reliable clinical data. The compound has been linked to various health benefits, but the studies supporting these benefits are very few. Some of them are also limited to animal subjects only, so it’s unclear whether the compound is as beneficial to humans.

Nonetheless, the limited data available shows it can be useful for:

  • Preventing Neurodegeneration

Animal studies show Pterostilbene effectively fights oxidative stress caused by free radicals, which can cause neurodegeneration. The studies also report that it can improve the growth of new cells in different parts of the brain, including the hippocampus. It’s said that the nootropic increases mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to encourage growth and multiplication of neurons.

Additional studies done on cells also showed Pterostilbene could increase dopamine levels in the brain and fight monoamine oxidase B or MAO-B, which have been linked to Parkinson’s disease.

From the data, the product is not just effective for preventing neurodegeneration, but it may also reverse the condition in people who already have it. Sadly, no clinical trials have been published to support the claims.

  • Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

Many Pterostilbene supplements claim to have anti-aging benefits. According to the studies available, the compound can fight aging issues like cognitive decline. It’s neuro-protectant properties also suggest that it can protect aging people from conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, and other forms of dementia. There have also been studies reporting that it can protect users from heart diseases, and it may also help regulate blood sugar levels. All these are issues that aging people struggle with.

Hopefully, we will see more studies investigating these effects more extensively soon.

  • Supporting Weight Management

Weight management is a surprising Pterostilbene effect that was observed in one human trial and several animal studies. In the human trial, Pterostilbene was being investigated for its effects on cholesterol levels. At the end of the study, the researchers observed significant weight loss in the individuals taking Pterostilbene.

Follow up animal studies reported that Pterostilbene might aid weight loss by improving insulin boosting gut flora. This improves the digestion of food. It also increased a useful bacterium, Akkermansia muciniphila, which fights obesity, inflammation, and diabetes.

It also improves insulin sensitivity and prevents the conversion of sugars to fats. It also blocks the multiplication of fat cells.

Take note that all these effects have been observed in animal studies only.

  • Boosting Heart Health

Preliminary data shows it can boost heart health and fight various cardiovascular conditions. Its antioxidant properties are already very critical for a healthy heart. Additionally, animal studies show Pterostilbene can reduce the accumulation of bad LDL cholesterol. It also protects the heart against hardening of arteries or atherosclerosis and cor pulmonale or pulmonary heart disease.

  • Supporting Liver Functions

Pterostilbene offers antioxidant and anti-inflammation protection to the liver cells. It has even been seen to be effective for fighting fibrosis or scarring and liver inflammatory damage.

  • Fighting Inflammation

Pterostilbene’s anti-inflammation effects are not very well-studied. In some studies, the compound is said to be useful for fighting severe acute pancreatitis. In other trials, the compound did not produce significant results in patients with arthritis.

Therefore, while it may be useful for fighting pancreas inflammation, we still do not know the full scale of its impact due to the lack of clinical trials. It’s better to consult a licensed physician for a better-understood alternative.

  • Regulating Blood Sugar

Multiple studies have reported that the supplement increases insulin production and sensitivity. Therefore, the drug may be useful in reducing blood sugar. It may also increase the production of liver enzymes involved in sugar metabolism.

Sadly, no human trials have been carried to investigate the efficacy of Pterostilbene on blood sugar. It’s also not clear whether it’s better than the current medications.

Other possible benefits:

  • It may prevent vision problems.
  • It may help fight certain types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colon cancer.

Side Effects

It is generally safe and well-tolerated when used at the right dosages. However, at higher doses, Pterostilbene may produce some severe adverse reactions. For instance, some individuals experienced increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol).

Pterostilbene should be used very carefully to avoid complications. In case of any side effects, stop taking the compound and seek medical help right away.

Pregnant and nursing mothers should not use it . Anyone with a medical condition or taking any other drugs should consult a licensed physician before using Pterostilbene.


The lack of extensive clinical trials means we don’t have any official dosages for this compound. However, from anecdotal experiences, 250mg per day is considered to be the most effective and safe dosage of the product. New users should start with lower dosages of around 100mg per day.

Final Thoughts

Pterostilbene is a very promising compound, but the lack of extensive clinical trials is its biggest drawback. Not only does it make it extremely hard to pinpoint the drug’s efficacy, but it also leaves us in the dark in regards to the compound’s safety profile. For such reasons, we encourage you to consult your doctor before taking it.

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2. https://www.verywellhealth.com/the-benefits-of-pterostilbene-89504


Galantamine: Usage, Dosage, Benefits & Side Effects

Many investigative drugs are said to be effective for treating symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, but the research on most of these drugs is very limited, and that’s why they are not approved by the FDA.

Galantamine, on the other hand, is an FDA approved treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. This means it’s well studied and its efficacy and safety are very well documented. However, in addition to treating Alzheimer’s, the drug has also been linked to a number of other health benefits that have not been proved by clinical trials. For instance, a few trials show that it may be effective for diabetes, autism, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. However, the quality of these trials is very questionable, and that’s why the FDA has only approved the drug for improving memory, learning, and awareness associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

In Russia and Europe, Galantamine was traditionally used as a remedy for myopathy or muscular weakness and sensory and motor dysfunction caused by central nervous system issues.

Galantamine is currently available under the brand names Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine, and Nivalin.

Mechanism of Action

Galantamine is well-studied for its effects on Alzheimer’s disease. According to multiple studies, Galantamine works by preventing the actions of cholinesterase. This is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Low acetylcholine levels have been linked to Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia. Therefore, by preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine, Galantamine makes sure that you have enough acetylcholine. Remember that this neurotransmitter is involved in memory, learning ability, and other cognitive functions. Therefore, Galantamine doesn’t just help to stop Alzheimer’s and dementia, but it will also improve the quality of life of the recovering patient by improving their cognition.

There have also been reports that since it reverses dementia by boosting cognitive functions, the drug could also be effective as a nootropic in healthy adults. There is not enough clinical data to support the claims, though.

Outside Alzheimer’s research, Galantamine is not extensively studied. Therefore, its mechanism of action in producing other effects is not well understood.

Uses and Benefits

  • Treating Alzheimer’s Disease

Galantamine is an FDA-approved treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The drug is especially effective when used early, i.e., as soon as the condition is diagnosed, and it should be continued for more than 1 year. Continued treatment prevents cognitive decline and maintains a good quality of life. This means the patients will still be able to carry out most of their daily tasks independently. One study reported that treatment with Galantamine prevented cognitive decline for up to 3 years since the treatment was initiated. It even reduced the need for nursing home placement. Therefore, it’s best to get the diagnosis and therapy as soon as possible.

Galantamine’s impact on Alzheimer’s is not fully understood, but scientists believe it increases acetylcholine concentration by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter. It also improves cholinergic neurotransmitter functions and hippocampal activities. This is especially useful for maintaining a good memory.

Several studies also suggest that Galantamine prevents the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques. Long-term treatment with Galantamine is also known to improve neuronal connections.

Galantamine has been compared to other medications like donepezil. The data shows there isn’t much to separate the two. However, Galantamine is the more cost-effective treatment than most conventional cholinesterase inhibiting medications.

  • Treating Mild Cognitive Impairment

Mild cognitive impairment is a condition characterized by memory failure and diminished cognitive functions. Studies show Galantamine improves working and episodic memory.

Galantamine may be effective for MCI due to its ability to improve cholinergic functions. It also boosts IGF-s levels in the brain, which encourages the growth of new brain cells.

  • Boosting Antioxidant Protection

Oxidative stress has been linked to conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, diabetes, Down’s Syndrome, and cancer. Galantamine provides antioxidant protection to fight oxidative stress caused by free radicals. It protects brain cells against oxidative damage to maintain optimal brain functions.

Galantamine works by protecting mitochondria and activating NRF2.

  • Reducing Inflammation

Several studies report that it modifies visfatin, adiponectin, and NF-kB to produce anti-inflammatory effects. It also activates cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. This reduces overexposure to inflammation and may also block the production of cytokines.

Additional human trials are necessary to determine the effectiveness of Galantamine as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Other purported uses of Galantamine include:

  • Treating diabetes
  • Treating obesity
  • Fighting toxins
  • Treating the symptoms of autism
  • Combating schizophrenia
  • Relieving symptoms of arthritis

Side Effects

Galantamine is generally safe and well-tolerated when used as prescribed.

In some cases, the drug can produce adverse reactions. Most of these are usually mild, e.g., nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, loss of appetite, weight loss, and headaches.

In rare cases, the drug induces severe adverse reactions like slowed heart rate, skin rash, stomach ulcers, seizures, trouble urinating, blurred vision, depression, confusion, and tremors. Stop using the drug and consult a physician right away if you experience any severe side effects.

Before using it , discuss your medical history with a medical practitioner. Make sure to point out any medications you could be using as well as your allergies.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women are discouraged from using this drug.


The dosages vary depending on various factors. Your doctor will help you find the appropriate dosage for your unique situation. Make sure to stick to that dosage at all times.

In case you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. However, if it’s almost time for your next dose, do not double the dosage. Just skip the missed dose.

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  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/galantamine-oral-route/precautions/drg-20067458?p=1
  2. https://www.alzforum.org/therapeutics/galantamine
  3. https://reference.medscape.com/drug/razadyne-galantamine-343059
  4. https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/6134/smpc#gref

Agmatine Sulfate: Usage, Dosage and Benefits

Agmatine Sulfate is the supplemental form of Agmatine. Agmatine, on the other hand, is a very common chemical found in animals, plants, and bacteria. Even humans naturally produce this compound from an amino acid known as L-Arginine. The chemical acts as a neurotransmitter found in neurons. According to some scientists, the chemical affects various parts of the brain. It interacts with different receptors to produce different effects. It has been linked to a number of health benefits ranging from cognitive enhancing benefits to improved athletic performance, enhanced mood, and stress relief. However, the research backing these effects is very minimal.

Supplements like this one have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for any medical uses. They are also unregulated, which means you can easily buy them from online and other stores, but the quality of the compound may vary from one vendor to another.

Working Mechanism

Scientists have put across several possible working mechanisms of Agmatine. According to some data, the nootropic interacts with several enzymes that play a key role in the production and functioning of Nitric Oxide. Research suggests it inhibits two enzymes, iNOS, and nNOS. iNOS is involved in the production of Nitric Oxide to support the immune system. However, at high levels, it can trigger inflammation, which can lead to serious medical complications. It prevents this by inhibiting iNOS.

nNOS, on the other hand, supports the communication of neurons, but at high levels, it prevents the growth and repair of neurons, which can lead to neurodegenerative issues. This partly explains why supplements are said to be a possible solution for neurodegenerative disorders like dementia.

Finally, Agmatine increases eNOS enzymes, which facilitate the vasodilation of blood vessels. This increases the flow of blood, ensuring that cells and tissues are getting sufficient oxygen and nutrients. It also helps to lower blood pressure.

It is also known to affect other parts of the brain. For instance, some trials report that it blocks NMDA receptors to fight neuron damage and death caused by glutamate toxicity.

Agmatine also prevents the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine from binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Agmatine binds to these receptors hence allowing your brain to make use of acetylcholine.

Animal studies also show it can increase beta-endorphins by activating imidazoline receptors. An increase in beta-endorphins improves one’s response to stress, fear, and pain.

These are just but a few of the suggested mechanisms of action of this chemical. It’s critical that you understand the chemical has only been tested in animals and cells. Therefore, its full effects on humans are still not 100% understood.

Uses and Benefits

According to the preliminary data we have at the moment, Agmatine Sulfate may be useful for the following conditions:

  • Mental Health

From animal studies, it was seen to improve subjects’ responses to stress, anxiety, and depression. These effects have not been studied in humans, so we don’t know whether the drug can produce similar results in adults with the same conditions.

It is said to be effective for these conditions by boosting adenylate cyclase levels in the prefrontal cortex of animals. Low levels of this enzyme have been linked to depression, so it helps prevent it by increasing the enzyme.

In addition to that, Agamatine increases NRF2 to protect the brain cells against cortisol.

  • Pain

Agmatine may decrease hypersensitivity to pain. In some animal studies, the chemical reduced neuropathic pain by blocking NMDA receptors and inhibiting the activation of nitric oxide synthase.

The effectiveness of the drug for pain management in humans remains unknown since the drug has not been subjected to any reliable clinical trials. Therefore, it’s best to consult a physician before using agmatine sulfate for this purpose.

  • Brain Health

It could be a potential treatment for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, seizures, stroke, and nerve damage. It can also prevent these conditions.

Agmatine sulfate is believed to be effective for Alzheimer’s disease because it fights the buildup of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles by improving insulin signaling.

For seizures, agmatine sulfate was seen to be effective in mice where it blocked NMDA receptors, which have been linked to the condition.

It also improves nerve repair and growth by inhibiting nNOS.

None of these benefits have been confirmed in human trials, so consume this data with a grain of salt.

  • Muscle Growth

In one animal trial involving rats, Agmatine stimulates the secretion of Luteinizing Hormone, increasing the production of testosterone. Testosterone plays a vital role in the growth of lean muscle mass, fat loss, sex drive, and other body functions.

Agmatine also improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in the muscles.

This explains why agmatine sulfate has been linked to improved athletic performance.

Other possible uses of agmatine sulfate include:

  • Treating inflammation
  • Easing alcohol and morphine withdrawal
  • Treating atherosclerotic lesions (hardening of arteries)
  • Weight management
  • Improving insulin sensitivity
  • Treating symptoms of herniated disc
  • Treating psychiatric conditions like Schizophrenia

Side Effects

Agmatine can produce side effects like:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach upset

It should not be used with alcohol as it increases the risk of getting ulcers. To avoid drug interactions, consult a licensed physician before taking agmatine sulfate if you are already using other medications.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid it.


There are no official dosages. The appropriate dosage could vary depending on the condition you are treating, your age, and health status. For instance, to treat neuropathic pain, dosages between 1 and 2.5g per day were used in most studies.

Consult a licensed medical practitioner for a more appropriate dosage guideline. They will also help you identify other possible alternatives to agmatine sulfate.

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  1. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/circulationaha.105.602532
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12543244/
  3. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49078-0

Sunifiram: Usage, Benefits & Dosage

Sunifiram or DM-235 is a relatively new research chemical categorized as a nootropic or cognitive enhancing drug. It is derived from Piracetam, another very popular nootropic. Unlike racetams, Sunifiram is more potent, with data showing that it is 1000 times more powerful than Piracetam!

According to the scientific evidence available at the moment, it can boost memory, learning ability, and mood. It may also boost energy levels.

Sunifiram was developed in 2000 by scientists from the University of Firenze, Italy. It was initially developed for treating the cognitive decline symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. The research was sadly abandoned, so they didn’t publish any clinical data.

Today, Sunifiram is available as a research chemical. The FDA has not approved the use of the drug for any medicinal uses. They also do not regulate it, so people can buy from online stores as a dietary supplement.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of Sunifiram is not 100% understood. Based on its striking similarities to Piracetam, some studies suggest that it affects the brain the same way Piracetam does. No reliable human trials support the claim, though.

Based on the limited research, scientists have put across several possible mechanisms of action explaining how the nootropic can be beneficial.

First, animal studies have reported that Sunifiram improves acetylcholine activities in the brain. In a study done on mice, the drug fought scopolamine, a compound that inhibits the release of acetylcholine. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays a vital role in learning, memory, and other brain functions. This would explain how this nootropic is believed to be an effective nootropic as well as a treatment for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

It’s also possible that Sunifiram improves learning and cognition by activating the AMPA-mediated neurotransmission system.

According to another study done on mice, Sunifiram stimulated the release of glutamate and activated the glutamate receptors. This boosts synaptic plasticity, which is essential for learning and other cognitive functions.

Uses and Benefits

Most of the uses and benefits of Sunifiram are mostly theoretical. The drug is relatively new in the scene, and it hasn’t been subjected to any reliable human trials. The uses discussed below are based on the preliminary data from limited animal studies.

  • Improves Memory and Learning

Multiple animal studies have reported Sunifiram’s ability to improve memory and learning. In some of these studies, the researchers looked at the impact of Sunifiram on mice with amnesia induced by drugs like baclofen, clonidine, and scopolamine. The researchers observed significant improvements suggesting Sunifiram may be effective in reversing memory loss issues caused by certain medications. While the results are very promising, they are far from definitive because they are limited to animal subjects. Also, the study involved subjects that had been treated with memory-impairing drugs. It’s impossible to tell whether they can boost memory in healthy individuals.

Since this nootropic can influence acetylcholine activities, it’s also possible that it can improve learning. A few studies have suggested this usage, but they were all done on mice.

Large-scale clinical trials are necessary to understand the efficacy and safety of Sunifiram fully.

  • May Reduce Pain Sensitivity

In a trial involving rats subjected to heat-related pain, the researchers reported that the mice treated with Sunifiram had a better response to the pain.

Other than the above benefits, a few trials also claim the nootropic can increase sex drive, improve mood, and boost energy levels.

The biggest drawback with Sunifiram is the lack of extensive clinical studies, meaning we cannot say tell with absolute certainty whether the drug is as beneficial as claimed or not.

Side Effects

Again, due to the lack of sufficient clinical trials, the safety of Sunifiram remains mostly unknown. Another concern is its potency, which is reported to be 1000 times higher than Piracetam’s. Being such a powerful compound, Sunifiram may induce some serious adverse events if used recklessly.

So far, the only adverse reactions reported are headaches, increased perspiration, high body temperature, nasal stuffiness, insomnia, restlessness, forgetfulness, mental sluggishness or brain fog, anxiety, and increased sensitivity to audio and visual stimulation.

The smart thing to do is avoid using Sunifiram until we have enough scientific evidence documenting its benefits and safety. However, if you still want to use it, you should do so under the guidance of a licensed physician. Make sure to follow the recommended dosage at all times. You should also avoid using it for a prolonged period.

Consult a physician before taking the supplement if you have an existing medical condition. Pregnant and nursing mothers should avoid the drug.


There are no official dosages of this drug. The dosage guideline available at the moment is based on anecdotal experiences. Given the extreme potency of the drug, users require only small doses to feel its effects.

Most people experimenting with the drug use it in dosages of between 5 and 10mg taken two or three times per day.

Using it in high doses or for too long can lead to tolerance so, it should be used in short cycles with breaks in between.

Can You Stack Sunifiram with Other Nootropics?

The practice of stacking multiple nootropics to boost the results has grown very popular in the last few years. Most of these stacks work quite well without causing any adverse reactions. This is especially common in people who already have vast experience with these drugs.

Theoretically, the product can also be stacked with other nootropics, but that’ll be ill-advised. There is so much about this drug that we do not know. This includes drug interactions and possible long-term side effects. It’s also a very powerful compound. For such reasons, it’s wiser to avoid combining Sunifiram with any other dietary supplements until more clinical trials on its effects and safety are published.

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  1. https://examine.com/supplements/sunifiram/
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S096808960900830X
  3. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16834757/Pharmacological_characterization_of_DM232__unifiram__and_DM235__sunifiram__new_potent_cognition_enhancers_

Huperzine A: Usage, Benefits & Dosage

Huperzine A is a dietary supplement extracted from a Chinese plant called Huperzia Serrata or Chinese club moss. Chinese club moss is a traditional medicine used to reduce inflammation, sharpen memory, and deliver other health benefits.

It captured the attention of Alzheimer’s research scientists who reported that the compound could reverse the cognitive decline issues associated with neurodegenerative disorders like dementia. According to some preliminary data, Huperzine A can inhibit the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine. By combating this enzyme, it effectively promotes the actions of acetylcholine to improve memory, attention, and learning ability.

Huperzine A jar

There have also been reports that Huperzine A could be an effective memory booster in healthy individuals. That’s why the drug is also sold as a nootropic. However, the scientific evidence backing its effectiveness for this purpose is very limited.

It is also known by the names HupA, Huperzine, Selagine, and Huperzina A.

Uses and Benefits of Huperzine A

According to the limited scientific data available at the moment, it may be beneficial for:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

Huperzine A is believed to be a potential treatment for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Other than treating the condition, it may also help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s in people who are already at a predisposed risk.

Huperzine A might be useful for this purpose due to its impact on the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The compound reduces the activities of the chemical Cholinesterase. This increases the levels of acetylcholine hence improving key cognitive functions. In doing so, Huperzine A reverses Alzheimer’s symptoms such as memory loss, poor concentration, and learning impairment.

The biggest challenge with Huperzine A is the lack of large-scale human trials to support its efficacy. There have been a few human studies involving subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, but these studies are not of the highest quality. For instance, this trial involving 454 Alzheimer’s patients reported improved cognitive functions and functional performance without any adverse events, but the study had several shortcomings. In the end, the researchers recommended more rigorous and randomized trials for more reliable results.

A few studies have also produced contradicting results showing the product did not have a significant impact on the cognitive functions of Alzheimer’s patients.

It’s clear that the only way to know how beneficial Huperzine A might be for Alzheimer’s patients is through thorough clinical trials. They will also help us understand the safety profile of the drug better. Hopefully, we’ll see more of these trials in the near future.

  • Memory Enhancement

Huperzine A may boost memory and cognition in healthy individuals, including students and professionals. It can also promote normal cognitive functions in aging people, a population where age-related cognitive decline is very common.

Of course, these claims stem from the reported Huperzine A’s mechanism of action that involves increasing the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The only problem is that there haven’t been many clinical trials investigating this effect. Only one trial has reported the memory enhancement abilities of Huperzine A in healthy individuals. The trial had a very small sample size of just 34 adolescent students.

In addition to the above uses, Huperzine A is also purported to be beneficial for:

  • Treating psychiatric disorders like depression and Schizophrenia
  • Increasing mental alertness and energy
  • Improving neuroprotection
  • Fighting cocaine use disorder
  • Fighting glutamate toxicity
  • Treating myasthenia gravis. An autoimmune disorder causing rapid fatigue and weakness of muscles

Side Effects

Huperzine A is generally safe and well-tolerated when taken appropriately.

In some rare cases, this nootropic can produce side effects like blurred vision, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, sweating, nausea, slurred speech, restlessness, dizziness, high blood pressure, slowed heart rate, sleep disturbance, and loss of appetite. The safety profile of Huperzine A is not known 100%, but reports show the risk of adverse reactions increase when the drug is abused. Long-term effects of the drug are also not known.

As a safety precaution, pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid this drug. Individuals with existing medical conditions like seizure disorder, stomach ulcers, and cardiovascular diseases are also advised against using Huperzine A. In summary, do not use this drug without a doctor’s approval if you have any medical condition.


Huperzine A is usually administered orally, but you can also use it through injections. There are no official dosages that are guaranteed to be safe and effective for everyone. Based on anecdotal experiences and a few of the available studies, a dosage of around 100mcg taken twice daily is said to be most effective for memory enhancement. For Alzheimer’s disease, dosages of between 300mcg and 500mcg taken twice per day are recommended.

To treat Myasthenia Gravis, Huperzine A is administered through intramuscular injections. The dosages used here are typically low. You should only use Huperzine A for this purpose with a doctor’s permission and supervision.

Final Thoughts

This product is a drug with so much potential but not enough clinical data backing it. For that reason, we’ll encourage you to speak to a licensed physician about a possible alternative, especially if you are looking to treat a medical condition like Alzheimer’s disease or Myasthenia Gravis.

For the people who want to use it for its potential nootropic benefits, make sure to take it in the right dosages and for short-term. Stop using the drug if you experience any severe side effects.

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  1. https://www.alzforum.org/therapeutics/huperzine
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/expert-answers/huperzine-a/faq-20058259
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/huperzine-a

Pramiracetam: Uses, Dosage and Benefits

Pramiracetam belongs to the popular family of nootropics called “racetams.” This is the same family that Piracetam, a well-known nootropic, belongs to. Actually, Primaracetam was synthesized from Piracetam.

Pramiracetam was developed back in 1979 by a division of Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company called Parke-Davis. It is sold under the brand name Pramistar. In 2000, Warner-Lambert and Pfizer merged their operations, so the drug is now under Pfizer.

It has been subjected to various studies, most of which are done on animals. From the early studies, the researchers observed its powerful cognitive-enhancing effects. The data even showed it to be more potent than the original racetam drug Piracetam. Sadly, these studies were limited to animal subjects, and they are also not of the highest quality, so they’re not very reliable.

Pramiracetam jar

That said, there are still many trials and some anecdotal evidence showing how useful Pramiracetam can be. It can boost cognitive functions like memory formation and retrieval in healthy adults. It may also be effective in treating Alzheimer’s symptoms, such as memory loss and difficulty in learning. Some reports also suggest it can treat central nervous system disorders and symptoms of brain injury.

The FDA has not approved the use of Pramiracetam in the medical field. However, the drug is available as a dietary supplement. Pramiracetam is also not approved in Canada, but people can import it for personal use. It’s only in Europe where Pramiracetam has been approved as a prescription drug to treat Alzheimer’s and neurological issues like memory problems, ADHD, and dyslexia.

Other than Pramistar, Pramiracetam is also sold under the brand names Remen and Neupramir.

Mechanism of Action

Pramiracetam has a unique mechanism of action. It’s even different from other nootropics. Instead of increasing neurotransmitter secretion directly – as is the case with some racetams – it stimulates the high-affinity choline uptake, a precursor to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in cognitive functions like memory formation, concentration, and learning ability. Therefore, an increase in acetylcholine should boost cognition.

Scientists have also suggested other possible effects that it may have on the brain. For instance, this study reports how the nootropic increases the activities of nitric oxide synthase, which boosts NO levels in the brain. An increase in NO boosts cerebral blood flow, which is critical for maintaining brain cells and neurons.

Uses and Benefits

Pramiracetam may be beneficial in the following ways:

  • Memory Enhancement

Pramiracetam is reported to be a great memory enhancer in various animal studies and a few clinical trials. In this animal study, Pramiracetam was used in dosages of 7.5 mg per kg and 15mg per kg in rats for around 7 weeks. The researchers investigated the drug’s effects on the rat’s short-term (working) and long-term (reference) memory. At the end of the study, they observed a significant boost in long-term memory. Although there was no significant difference in working memory, the results showed the promising effects of the nootropic in both spatial learning and memory.

The effects of the nootropic in humans have also been investigated. For instance, this double-blind placebo-controlled trial looked at the impact of Pramiracetam sulphate on four young men with memory and cognitive issues caused by brain injuries. They were given a dosage of 400mg TID for 18 months. A significant improvement in memory was observed during the trial and up to a month after the treatment was discontinued.

By no means are these trials enough, but they paint a really good picture of just how useful Pramiracetam could be. User experiences also suggest that it can work even in healthy people.

  • Supporting Brain Injury Recovery

The nootropic can be very helpful for people with mild and severe brain injuries. It’s even reported to be more effective than Piracetam at reducing dizziness, nausea, headaches, and other symptoms of brain concussion.

It can also reverse the symptoms of Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency since it boosts blood flow in the brain. Individuals at a predisposed risk of developing the condition may also use the nootropic as a prevention measure.

  • Boosting Neuroprotection

Pramiracetam can offer neuroprotection in both healthy and unhealthy individuals. This has been observed in animal and human trials.

The drug can protect the brain against toxins and other drugs. For example, Pramiracetam reduced amnesic effects stimulated by the drug Scopolamine in healthy individuals.

Animal trials also showed Pramiracetam could protect the brain against memory loss induced by electric shocks.

Side Effects

Most of the studies involving the nootropic did not report any severe side effects. In a few rare cases, the users experienced dizziness, nausea, headaches, sleep disturbance, GI distress, and nervousness.

Taking the drug in high doses and for prolonged periods can increase your tolerance.

You can reduce the risk of adverse reactions by using low dosages. Some people also combine Pramiracetam with some choline nootropics to reduce side effects and boost the results at the same time.

Do not take Pramiracetam without a doctor’s approval if you’re already taking medications for a different condition.


Based on the available trials, Pramiracetam can be used in 1200mg dosages.

Pramiracetam’s half-life is between 4 and 7 hours, so it’s best to split the dosage into two or three servings of 600mg or 400mg, respectively.

Final Thoughts

The nootropic is a drug with so much potential. It can be highly beneficial to healthy people as well as individuals with Alzheimer’s, dementia, brain injuries, chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, etc. However, clinical data on the drug is very limited, and that’s why we encourage you to use it very carefully and under the guidance of a licensed medical practitioner.

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  1. https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Pramiracetam
  2. https://examine.com/supplements/pramiracetam/
  3. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322179918_The_effect_of_pramiracetam_in_the_myelination_of_the_hippocampus_in_the_BALBc_mouse_Mus_musculus