Adrafinil: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Adrafinil is an inactive eugeroic drug used in promoting increased cognitive abilities and alertness. As it is metabolized in the body, it is converted to the active drug Modafinil. It is typically utilized by individuals with sleep disorders that affect their ability to stay awake during the day, such as narcolepsy. Unlike other wakefulness aids, such as coffee, this particular stimulant drug does not incur jitteriness or an energy crash in the individuals that use it.


Medical History

Adrafinil was discovered in France in 1974 by the Louis Lafon Laboratories pharmaceutical company. Given the brand name Olmifon, it was put into circulation in France in 1985 to remedy narcolepsy and other similar sleep disorders. It remained in use as a prescription drug until 2011, when the manufacturing of it was discontinued. This was done, in part, due to the discovery and apparent cost-effectiveness of manufacturing Modafinil.

The difference in the two drugs relates to the different levels of potency, how quickly it is activated in the body, and for how long. Modafinil came out on top and was thus put into circulation as a prescription drug. Once Adrafinil was discontinued as a prescription drug, it was then regulated to an over-the-counter supplement.


Unlike many supplements, Adrafinil has had documented research done during its reign as a prescription drug to back up the beneficial claims listed for it. This benefits the potential users, as they can be confident in the supplement’s ability to help them. The benefit of this eugeroic supplement can begin being felt within 60-90 minutes of it being taken on an empty stomach and will last for about 10-15 hours. These benefits can include:

  • Raised energy levels throughout the day
  • The lack of the typical “stimulant crash” as the supplement wears off
  • A reduction in mental fatigue
  • Enhanced clarity of thoughts
  • Increased positive mood
  • An increase in both short-term and long-term memory
  • The ability to stay awake for more extended periods of time
  • Increased mental alertness throughout the day
  • Enhanced ability to focus on a task
  • Improved reaction timeIncreased motivation
  • An increase in problem-solving abilities
  • Reduced depression in the elderly caused by neurological diseases

Side Effects

Adrafinil, overall, is considered a relatively safe and non-toxic supplement. In comparison to other stimulant-style drugs, it has very few side effects. As the drug promotes wakefulness in individuals, taking the supplement too late in the day can lead to the inability or difficulty falling asleep at night. Other than the insomnia, this supplement can cause a change in appetite, nausea, and mild headaches.

Regular use of the supplement is not recommended, as extended use can increase the count of certain liver enzymes and lead to liver damage. Likewise, it is not recommended for individuals who already take any drugs that increase the enzyme count in the liver.


While it is considered a non-toxic supplement, regular use of Adrafinil is not recommended. The dosage recommendations for the drug offers an on and off approach to taking it. Taking the required dosage every other day to every other two days a week, then going a week without it in order to keep the liver enzymes low. This will allow the eugeroic properties of the drug to stay effective and lead to fewer side effects.

The recommended dosage of the supplement is 300 mg – 600 mg every other day. Starting with the lower dosage allows the body to be used to the effects, and if the individual doesn’t feel like it’s enough, then it can be increased. The supplement must be taken immediately upon waking in the morning and on an empty stomach.

Overall, Adrafinil is a generally safe supplement for use in increasing mental alertness and cognitive functions. If taken correctly, it should cause little to no side effects in most individuals. As with all supplements, caution should be taken when trying it for the first time, and care should be given to the quality of the supplement purchased.

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Alpha GPC: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Alpha GPC, or Alpha-glycerophosphocholine, is a cholinergic compound found naturally in the brain. Supplements containing this compound has been shown to promote increased cognitive function, support cellular membranes, and boost athlete’s power output. This is done by the supplement, increasing a chemical in the brain called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is essential for learning functions of the brain and memory. The supplement also holds promise in being a beneficial ergogenic, or wakefulness supplement, but more research is needed in this area.

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Medical History

In the early 1990s, Alpha GPC was used in an Italian clinical trial to test its effectiveness in treating the cognitive decline experienced in individuals who had recently suffered a stroke. They treated 2,044 patients who had recently suffered a stroke with the supplement at 1,000 mg a day for 28 days and then 400 mg three times a day for the following five months. The ensuing evidence pointed to the supplement helping to improve performance on psychometric tests and improve the functionality of neuronal membranes.

Small scale studies on the effect the supplement has on physical performance have been done as well. These studies point to the possibility that the supplement increases the maximum power and velocity of an individual’s physical abilities.


There are documented benefits of Alpha GPC, and while more research is needed to accurately prove all the benefits, the current research is promising. The potential benefits of this supplement include:

  • Improvement in cognitive skills in Alzheimer’s and other related dementias suffers after three to six months of treatment.
  • Improve the rate of recovery for individuals that have suffered a stroke if treatment is given within ten days after the stroke.
  • Enhancing memory
  • Support of cognitive function and abilities in the elderly
  • Increased cell growth, reproduction, and repair
  • Improve and support recovery from brain injuries
  • Decreased anxiety
  • Increased power output in athletic performances
  • Increase the amount of fat burned
  • Increased iron absorption

Side Effects

Alpha GPC was determined by the FDA to be mostly safe when no more than 162.2 mg is consumed daily. Possible common side effects of the supplement include headaches, dizziness, skin rash, heartburn, confusion, insomnia, fatigue, nervousness, gastrointestinal distress, and diarrhea. These side effects are more prevalent at higher dosages.
It is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking the supplement, especially if an individual is prone to hypotension.
It is not recommended to be taken while pregnant or breastfeeding due to the lack of research data available.

The supplement possibly interacts with the medication Scopolamine, or Transderm Scop. Scopolamine blocks the chemical acetylcholine that the supplement increases. It is not known whether this interaction prompts a decrease in the effectiveness of Scopolamine. Still, it is recommended to speak to a healthcare provider beforehand out of an abundance of caution.


A recommended dosage of Alpha GPC depends on the health, age, and sex of the individual taking it, and there is not enough scientific research to back up a general range of a dose. If the supplement is being taken at the suggestion of a healthcare provider, they can prescribe a recommended amount that would be right for the individual.

It is always best when trying out a new supplement to start with the lowest recommended dose, and standard dosing on the supplement’s label recommends 300 mg to 600 mg daily. If an individual is taking the supplement for increased power output during athletic performances, a 600 mg dose once a day is standard. In individuals wanting to support cognitive functions, a total daily dose of 1,200 mg divided over three smaller doses of 400 mg each is recommended.

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Overall, Alpha GPC is a generally safe supplement used to support and improve cognitive function and athletic power. With minimal side effects and adverse drug interactions, this supplement shows promise for the treatment of cognitive decline in individuals suffering from Alzheimer’s and related dementias.

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Hydrafinil: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Hydrafinil, otherwise known as 9-Fluorenol, is a eugeroic drug that promotes wakefulness and increased mental alertness in an individual. It is a metabolite of Modafinil but has a shorter half-life of six to eight hours. It operates by boosting the dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which increases glutamate, a neurotransmitter that enhances memory and learning. The increase of dopamine also triggers an increase in cognitive abilities and alertness. In comparison to other eugeroics, this drug has a more subtle impact on energy and function, allowing for a calmer, less wired energy.


Medical History

Hydrafinil was created by Cephalon Pharmaceuticals as a possible successor to the popular eugeroic drug Provigil, also known as Modafinil. Research, at the time, pointed to the drug having 39% more viability over a short span of time than Modafinil. The company eventually scrapped research into the potential of the drug, possibly due to Fluorenol being used as a bug spray in the 1930s and being found to be lethal to aquatic life.

The drug is hailed at producing more potent euphoric and eugeroic effects than Modafinil, but for a shorter time. The shorter half-life of the drug is a draw-back to many individuals, as the benefits don’t last long before they expire.

Interest in the drug spiked again in 2015 when nootropic drugs became popular. It is not FDA regulated and can be purchased over the counter either online or in select nutrition stores as a dietary supplement.


Although Hydrafinil may be an unregulated drug, the benefits are widely noted due to it being comparable to Modafinil. Many individuals that have used the supplement report an increase in cognitive functions and clarity of thought. Other potential benefits of the supplement include:

  • Increased energy and alertness
  • Improved quality of sleep
  • An increased attention span
  • Increased capacity to learn
  • Improved memory
  • Increased motivation
  • Improvement in mood
  • A more regulated sleep cycle
  • Less addictive than Modafinil
  • Assist with overcoming addictions

Side Effects

The FDA does not regulate Hydrafinil, so caution must be taken when purchasing the supplement as different manufacturers can produce the supplement differently. In order to decrease the risk of contamination and severe side effects, a high-quality supplement from a reputable company is recommended.

Individuals that have used the drug have not reported any severe side effects, and it is generally considered to have fewer adverse reactions than that of Modafinil. The few mild side effects that have been reported include headaches, nausea, a change in appetite, dizziness, nervousness, increased anxiety, and difficulty sleeping.

As the drug has not gone through any human clinical trials, there is no accurate way of knowing the safety of its long term use. Because of this, it is not recommended for use by those that are pregnant or breastfeeding.


As it is an unregulated drug, Hydrafinil does not have any information regarding a standard dosage. Care should be taken to not consume too much of the supplement due to its increased strength in comparison to other eugeroic drugs. A doctor’s guidance is recommended when taking such a supplement to provide more accurate dosage recommendations.

Typically, manufacturers of the supplement prescribe standard dosing of 50 mg to 150 mg daily, with no more than 150 mg a day recommended. Taking the highest dosage for multiple days in a row is also not suggested. Overall, Hydrafinil comes across as a strong eugeroic beneficial in supporting and improving the cognitive functions of the brain while also providing a stimulating boost of energy when it is needed most. At the present time, it is considered to be relatively safe to consume due to it being compatible with other scientifically backed drugs

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Flmodafinil: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Flmodafinil, otherwise known as CRL-40,940, is a eugeroic comparable to Modafinil. It is claimed as a powerful nootropic that is more potent than its predecessors. When taken by mouth, the drug is absorbed quickly by the body, taking less time to kick in than other eugeroics, and it lasts 40% longer in the body. The difference between the drug and Modafinil is in the structural makeup of the compounds. This includes an additional two fluorine groups attached to the drug that is referenced in the prefix of its name. These additional groups increase eugeroic’s bioavailability. The drug is comparable to Adrafinil, Armodafinil, and Modafinil.

Medical History

Also going by the names of bisfluoromodafinil and lauflumide, Flmodafinil was patented in 2013, and clinical trials have been ongoing since 2015. Its clinical results are highly anticipated and are hoped to bring with them proof that the drug is a non-amphetamine with an increased ability to promote wakefulness and mental alertness.

This newest eugeroic targets the dopamine receptors in the brain and increases its level in the synapsis. This provides the boost in productivity, cognition, and motivation that makes eugeroic so popular. The drug also claims to have even fewer side effects and be overall a safer alternative to Modafinil.


As it is still in its trial phase, the benefits associated with Flmodafinil are from personal accounts of individuals taking the drug. Therefore they are considered unsupported until there are clinical results to back up the claims. The potential benefits that have been documented include:

  • A boost in mental and physical energy
  • Enhanced mental focus
  • A boost in overall mood
  • Increased mental alertness
  • Boosted mental agility
  • Enhanced neurological health
  • Increased productivity and motivation
  • Increases confidence
  • Promotes a euphoric feeling of excitement in the brain to help combat depression
  • Promotes a calm demeanor
  • Reduces anger and aggressive feelings

Side Effects

Until the clinical results of Flmodafinil are released, there is no definitive way of knowing the full scope of the potential side effects and long term safety of its consumption. Personal accounts of individuals state a marked decrease in side effects in comparison to Modafinil. Those side effects that were reported typically happened when an individual took a higher dose of the drug than is recommended. The side effects that were noted include congestion, an increase in anxiety, dizziness, nausea, indigestion, diarrhea, trouble sleeping, nervousness, headaches, allergic skin reactions, irregular heart rhythms, and insomnia.

The newer eugeroic can also cause interactions with current medications and decrease their effectiveness. These medications include hormonal contraceptives, Sandimmune, Theophylline, cyclosporine, and any other prescription or supplement that affects the liver’s enzyme activity. It is also recommended to avoid alcohol while taking the drug.


Flmodafinil is not regulated by the FDA as of yet, as it is still in ongoing clinical trials. Because of this, there is no standard dosing recommendation widely available. It is suggested to visit with a healthcare provider and take the supplement under their guidance if possible, as they will be able to provide a safer dose after combing through an individual’s medical history.

Otherwise, a dosage of 200 mg is standard on most manufacturer’s labels. Many individuals have come forward with their personal accounts of taking the drug and recommend starting at 50 mg to 75 mg a day. This is due to the potency of the product in comparison to similar eugeroic drugs.

Overall, Flmodafinil is a comparably more potent drug than its predecessor Modafinil and the benefits can be felt not long after taking a dose. While it is not FDA approved and can not be definitively classified as safe, there is little evidence to suggest otherwise. Information gathered from personal accounts show a lack of adverse reactions or severe side effects.

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Bromantane: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Bromantane, also known as Ladasten, is a stimulant nootropic drug that helps the brain increase and regulate its dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters. This increase and regulation help to enhance mental and physical performances of the body. The drug is derived from adamantane, and it has properties that are similar to amphetamine-like stimulants. Due to the unique aspects of the drug, it is sometimes classified as an adaptogen and actoprotector, which are drugs that enhance physical and mental resistance to extreme environmental conditions and stress.


Medical History

Bromantane was developed in the Zakusov State Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences in Moscow, Russia, in the 1980s. It was initially used to improve the work performance of individuals in high stress or extreme environments. Consumption of the drug prompted better focus and motivation on job sites.

Notably, the drug was given to the Soviet and Russian militaries to lessen the recovery time for soldiers after any intense physical exertion. It was approved for widescale distribution around Russia in 2009 for the treatment of Neurasthenia. The FDA in the United States has not entirely approved of the drug as of this time. Ongoing clinical trials are looking into the best dosage of the drug and for repeated scientific proof of its benefits.

The actoprotector effects of the drug can be felt within one to three days from the first dose, while the stimulant effects can be felt within one to two hours. These stimulant-like effects can last for up to eight to twelve hours.


Bromantane touts many stimulating and nootropic-like benefits from its consumption. While the drug has regularly been used as an adaptogen in Russia, its benefits have not been proven with enough scientific evidence to merit approval by the FDA. As such, the promised benefits are not guaranteed. The potential benefits of the drug include:

  • Reduced symptoms of Neurasthenia
  • Improved quality of sleep
  • Improved productivity
  • Improved motor function
  • Reduced anxiety and nervousness
  • Increased mental alertness
  • Increased wakefulness during the day
  • Improved short term memory
  • Increased motivation
  • An improved attention span
  • Reduced inflammation
  • A more stimulated immune system during stressful situations
  • An enhanced feeling of calm
  • An improved mood

Side Effects

The lack of scientific evidence on Bromantane makes it difficult to surmise the effect it will have on individuals. Most of the current information on the drug’s side effects comes from personal stories from individuals who regularly use the drug and a few animal trials.

For the most part, the noted side effects seem to be mild, with more severe reactions related to the consumption of a higher dosage. The potential side effects of taking the drug include increased urination, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, brain fog, fatigue, confusion, insomnia, and a crash in energy.


Bromantane does not have an official dosage recommendation due to it not being FDA approved, and there’s been no extensive testing done to find out the proper dose. Because of this, it is highly advised to consume the drug under the guidance of a healthcare provider. A healthcare provider can help figure out the right dosage for the individual and monitor for any adverse reactions or side effects of the drug.

The standard dosing given by manufacturers is from 50 mg to 100 mg a day. Although it has been noted that women metabolize the drug faster, and therefore will require a higher dosage than that of men. Athletes also prefer to take a higher dosage in order to optimize their performance. It is best to start with the lowest dose to see how the body reacts to it and go from there. It is not recommended to take more than 1000 mg a day, as the body will develop a tolerance for it, and the benefits will plateau.

Overall, Bromantane is a stimulating nootropic drug used to improve the body’s and mind’s performance during stressful or extreme conditions. While there is a lack of credible scientific evidence for the drug, it holds little in the way of side effects and is generally considered safe to consume.

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Capromorelin Tartrate : Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Capromorelin Tartrate is an investigational drug that stimulates the secretion of the human growth hormone. It mirrors how the human body usually produces the human growth hormone during puberty and into young adulthood. While the drug was initially being researched for the treatment of muscle weakness and fragility in elderly adults, the results were not substantial enough to continue the clinical studies. The drug is currently being studied for use in treating underweight dogs.

Medical History

The most notable human trail for Capromorelin Tartrate began in 1999 and ran for a year. During that year, scientists had 395 people between the ages of 65 and 84 who take the drug daily. After six months, the participants saw an average increase of 3 lbs of lean muscle mass gained as well as increased balance, strength, and coordination. After 12 months, the participants saw an overall improvement in their ability to climb stairs. While these results were good, they were not good enough to continue into the second year of the trial. Similar human trials continued up until 2017.

In 2017 a set of animal trials began to test the viability of the drug on dogs. These tests measured the appetite stimulation that occurred in the animals after consuming the drug. The weight that was gained was also measured in the trial. The success of these trials led to the FDA approval of the drug for prescription use on dogs. The medication brand was named Entyce®, and it is still available from a veterinarian.


While the benefits of Capromorelin Tartrate has been widely researched for animals, there is still inconclusive evidence for human consumption. The documented human trial noted that the drug could possibly be used to treat the functional decline of older adults, but the trials were not completed due to a lack of results. The potential benefits of the drug can include:

  • An increase in the body’s lean muscle mass
  • Increased physical strength
  • Improved balance
  • Enhanced coordination
  • An increase in appetite
  • Reduced physical weakness due to age or illness
  • Improvement of body composition and physical function

Side Effects

During the human trials of Capromorelin Tartrate, several mild to moderate side effects were noted. But since the trials were stopped, there is no substantial evidence of the long-term health and safety of taking the drug. The possible side effects of taking this drug include a drop in blood pressure, insomnia, excessive fatigue, insulin resistance, an increase in fasting glucose, nausea, and bloating.

There is not enough scientific information to know whether or not the drug is safe to take for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, and it is not recommended. It is also not recommended to take the drug if an individual is on any prescription medication until they speak with their healthcare provider, as there is a possibility of unknown drug interactions.


An accurate dosage of Capromorelin Tartrate has only been discovered for use in dogs. Therefore, it is suggested that an individual wishing to take the drug do so under the guidance of their healthcare provider. The scientific evidence from the human trial of the drug notes that a dosage of 6 mg to 20 mg was given daily as well as a dose of 10 mg three times a week. While this range of dose varies, it is recommended to begin a dosage at the lowest possible amount for safety.

The drug is available as a supplement online in both powdered and liquid form. There are also separate listings for the drug for use in cats and dogs to increase their appetite.

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Overall, Capromorelin Tartrate has had some success in human trials in treating the physical weakness that accompanies old age. Still, the trials were halted before a proper amount of information could be collected. Due to this, the FDA has only approved the drug for use in animals, and it is not recommended for human consumption.

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Cyclazodone: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Cyclazodone is a stimulant drug that is used to help enhance the mental focus of an individual and has found recent attention as a study aid. It is a derivative of pemoline but exhibits more potent stimulating and nootropic properties than it. The patents for the drug detail that it reduced fatigue with less stimulatory activity and less toxicity than that of amphetamines. While the drug has the possibility of being a potent nootropic and stimulant, the FDA has not approved it to be used as such due to the lack of scientific information and clinical trials.


Medical History

Cyclazodone was formulated in the 1960s by the American Cyanamid Company but was not widely known before it appeared online in the research chemical market in 2017. The effects of the drug are similar to those produced by amphetamines, and there is concern about it becoming an addictive substance due to its being used recreationally. Caution should be taken when consuming the drug, as there is an overall lack of pharmacological information and limited clinical data available for the drug. Therefore there is no sure way of knowing how toxic the drug can be or how severe the reactions may be from long-term usage.


The benefits of Cyclazodone are unsubstantiated in the scientific community and can not be accurately surmised because of this. Any potential benefits noted are from scientific theories on how the drug may work or personal anecdotes from current users of the drug. The possible benefits of the drug include:

  • Provides cognitive and physical stimulation
  • Increases mental alertness and focus
  • Increases energy
  • Decreases drowsiness
  • Positive improvement on an individual’s mood
  • Increased sociability
  • Promotes a euphoric feeling
  • An increased relief from pain
  • A reduction of symptoms of anxiety
  • Increased confidence and self-esteem
  • Increased libido
  • Enhanced clarity of thought

Side Effects

There have been no human studies to prove Cyclazodone’s safety, and it is recommended to use harm reduction practices if an individual chooses to consume the drug. A wide range of reactions have been noted by personal usage, but very little scientific evidence is available. It is generally understood that most adverse reactions happen when an individual takes a higher dosage, while lower dosing seems to be relatively safe. The potential side effects of the drug include frequent urination, increased body temperature, temporary erectile dysfunction, dry mouth, compulsive redosing, increased heart rate, teeth grinding, muscle cramps, a change in appetite, nausea, increased anxiety, headache, and irritability.

Unlike some drugs, there are also after-effects that are associated with taking this drug. These after-effects can include cognitive fatigue, headaches, a lack of motivation, muscle cramps, delusions, anxiety, depression, psychosis, depersonalization, insomnia, tactile hallucinations, and slowed down thoughts.

It is not advised to combine the drug with other substances, as it can cause moderate to severe reactions in some cases. It should not be taken with alcohol, MDMA, cocaine, Tramadol, and any other stimulant drug.


Cyclazodone is not approved by the FDA and does not have standard safe dosing guidelines. It is recommended to take the drug under the guidance of a healthcare provider for the safest experience. Individuals who wish to try the drug are also advised to take the lowest recommended dose in order to gauge their body’s reaction to the drug.

The dosage guidelines for research purposes denote a low dose as 5 mg and should be taken irregularly to prevent a tolerance build-up. A moderate dose is between 5 mg to 15 mg and should also be taken irregularly. Finally, a strong dose is listed at 25 mg to 30 mg, and no more than that should be taken at once. The drug is sold in pill and powder form from a 1 mg dosage to a 30 mg dose.

Overall, Cyclazodone is a potential beneficial stimulant and nootropic. More scientific research is needed to determine its benefits and safety. While the drug can be taken for research purposes and to treat those with ADHA, caution is recommended due to the current lack of information on its side effects and toxicity.

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Dihexa: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Dihexa, also known by its developmental code name PNB-0408, is a nootropic drug derived from angiotensin IV. Angiotensin IV is a peptide hormone that affects the central nervous system and assists in the regulation of insulin and memory acquisition and recall. As a derivative of this hormone, Dihexa has been found to potentially assist in the improvement of the cognitive functions that decline as a result of Alzheimer’s disease, or other similar dementias, by augmenting synaptic connectivity. It was found to be more effective than that of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or BDNF, and has the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.


Medical History

Dihexa was developed by Joe Harding and Jay Wright, Professors of Neurology at Washington State University in the United States. Harding and Wright have spent 20 years researching angIV-related peptides for their procognitive effects in order to find out how they affect the hippocampus and how they can be used to restore the mental decline associated with dementia.

Animal trials note that the nootropic drug effectively improved the cognitive functions in the rats it was given to. More studies are needed to validate these results. Still, Harding and Wright are hopeful that with extensive testing and FDA approval, the nootropic drug will be beneficial in treating central nervous system trauma and other cognitive diseases.


Dihexa requires more testing and clinical trials to prove both its safety and the benefits that it can provide. As only animal testing has currently been done on the nootropic, the potential benefits of the drug are not guaranteed. The possible benefits of the nootropic drug include:

  • An improvement in critical thinking- Restoration of the synapses between neurons in the nervous system
  • Improved production of dopamine and noradrenaline
  • Increased mental stamina
  • Enhanced articulation
  • Improved circulation
  • Accelerated wound healing
  • An increase in muscle growth
  • Reduction of cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or other degenerative cognitive diseases
  • Enhanced creative thinking
  • Improvement of problem-solving abilities
  • Improved cardiovascular health
  • Increased motivation

Side Effects

Dihexa has only been lab and animal tested, so the inherent risk factors of the drug are not widely known. Personal accounts of individuals taking the drug give some insight into the possible risks, but the overall safety of long term use is still unclear. The use of the drug short term does pose the possibility of side effects. Potential side effects include a reduced attention span, irritability, mood swings, change of taste, increased anxiety, nausea, and insomnia.

Long term use of the drug poses an increased risk for certain cancers due to its mechanism of action. The drug should also not be taken with any other nootropic or psychoactive substances. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are recommended to avoid the drug as there is not enough conclusive evidence of its safety.


Dihexa is not FDA approved and does not have a standard recommended dosage. It is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before beginning a nootropic regimen to verify the safety of the dosage on the individual.

The drug manufacturers note a recommended dosage on their packaging of 10 mg to 20 mg a week. The half-life of the nootropic is much longer than many others, and the effects work in the body for up to 10 days after first consumption. The drug typically comes in a powdered or capsule form, and individuals both consume it by mouth or rub it onto their skin and allow it to soak into them that way.

Overall, Dihexa is a newly emerging nootropic drug that holds the potential of restoring the cognitive defects that occur from Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias. While more experimentation is needed to prove the benefits of the drug, current evidence from personal users notes the drug’s ability to improve their thinking and cognitive abilities with regular use.

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NSI 189: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

NSI 189 is a neurogenic compound that is being studied for its potential as an antidepressant. The current research of the drug claims it could be a possible treatment for individuals who do not respond well to conventional antidepressant medications. The compound has gone through phase I and II clinical trials for its antidepressant properties, but the phase II trial failed to meet effectiveness outcomes. It is currently still being studied as a possible treatment for other conditions.

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Medical History

NSI 189 is being researched by the biotechnology company Neuralstem, Inc. The company has stated that it is not only investigating the compound for use as a treatment of major depressive disorders, it is also undergoing trials for use as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, post-traumatic stress disorder, diabetic neuropathy, as well as cognitive impairment and decline.

Research of the neurogenic compound suggests that it works by stimulating the growth of new brain cells and nerve cells through a process called neurogenesis. The neurogenesis appears to affect the hippocampus primarily, which is responsible for learning, memory, and emotion. Scientists believe the compound has the potential to treat various neurological and nerve conditions.


The study NSI 189 has uncovered several potential benefits it exudes on the brain. While more research is required to prove the benefits and safety of the compound, the current clinical trials show promise. Some of the potential benefits of the compound include:

  • Improvement of symptoms of depression
  • Improved moodImproved memory
  • Enhanced executive function
  • Lessening the effects of a stroke if given within six hours
  • Protect and stimulate the growth of nerves
  • A reduction and easement of symptoms of Angelman Syndrome
  • Improvement of neuropathy pain and symptoms
  • Improved memory recall
  • Improved emotional responses
  • Increased articulationEnhanced clarity of thoughts
  • Increased mental focus

Side Effects

NSI 189 is not approved by the FDA, and there is not enough scientific information available to verify its safety. To lessen any potential side effects, it is advisable to only take the lowest possible dose of the compound at first in order to judge how it will affect the body. The possible side effects of this compound include nausea, fatigue, heart palpitations, headache, increased anxiety, visual perception changes, loss of memory, dissociation, decreased appetite, increased heart rate, delirium, and a drop in blood sugar.

As there have been no long term studies for this compound, the long term effects and overall safety are unknown. For this reason, it is not suggested to take the compound if an individual is pregnant or breastfeeding. It is also not advisable to take the compound if an individual is taking a prescription medication for the treatment of depression, neuropathy, or if they have low blood sugar.


As of yet, a recommended dosage does not exist for NSI 189, as there have not been enough clinical trials with associated research to find a viable standard dose. As with any unproven supplement, it is recommended to consult a healthcare provider before deciding to take the substance. The healthcare provider may be able to provide more information on the compound and give the correct dosage for the individual.

The information available on the best dosage is from the completed clinical trials and personal reviews of the compound. The noted dosages are between 40 mg a day up to 100 mg a day. It is advised to begin with the lowest dosage and work up from there if needed. But many personal reviewers felt the effects after a single dose with the lowest recommended dosage.

Overall, NSI 189 is an investigational compound being studied for its antidepressant properties as well as for its potential as a treatment for other neurological conditions. While the current research notes it as a relatively safe drug, there are a host of possible side effects that have been experienced both by those in the clinical trials and individuals who have used the drug as a supplement.

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Centrophenoxine: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Centrophenoxine, otherwise known as Meclofenoxate or Lucidril, is a nootropic that has been studied for decades for its cognitive enhancing abilities. It is a combination of two chemicals, Dimethyl-aminoethanol, or DMAE, and Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid, or pCPA. DMAE is a substance naturally found in some fish and the human brain, and it is believed to bring on a stimulant effect over the mind. The other chemical, pCPA, is a synthetic version of a plant growth hormone. DMAE is the main component of the compound and, on its own, has trouble permeating the blood-brain barrier. When the substance is combined into Centrophenoxine, it is then able to cross the barrier and enter the brain quickly and effectively.

Medical History

Centrophenoxine was developed in 1959 and continues to be studied for its possible ability to improve degenerative brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s and other related dementias. The nootropic is currently able to be purchased over the counter without a prescription. While it has been investigated for several decades, the nootropic does not have enough conclusive evidence to support its potential benefits and safety. The FDA has therefore not approved the nootropic as an official treatment of degenerative brain disorders.


While Centrophenoxine claims to improve the cognitive abilities and functions in those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias, the exact mechanism of action of the nootropic is still being studied. Current research points to several possible ways that it can improve cognition, including protecting neurons from oxidative stress, increasing glucose to promote blood flow to the brain, increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain, increasing RNA production, and reducing lipofuscin waste in the brain’s cells.

With those mechanisms of action, the nootropic could potentially provide a host of benefits, including:

  • Protecting nerve cells from damage due to toxins or stroke
  • Providing mood-boosting effects
  • Reduction of anxiety
  • Reversing the effects of aging
  • Increased life span
  • Improvement in memory
  • Improvement in the ability to learn and retain what was learned
  • Increased energy

Side Effects

Centrophenoxine has been widely studied and is regarded as relatively safe and highly tolerable in most individuals. But it is always recommended to use caution when trying a new dietary supplement, and this one is no different. There are still side effects that have been reported, from mild to more moderate, but the nootropic is overall considered non-toxic. The most common potential side effects noted when taking the supplement include nausea, stomach cramps, mental fog, headache, increased anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, restlessness, muscle tension, depression, muscle tremors, and gastrointestinal issues.

There have been a few cases reported of severe adverse reactions during clinical trials. The reactions noted were cardiac arrest, seizures, and cardiac failure that led to death.

The nootropic is not recommended for individuals with seizure disorders, Parkinsons disease, depression, or bipolar disorder, as the increase in acetylcholine can worsen the symptoms inherent in these disorders. It is also not advised to take the nootropic if an individual is pregnant or breastfeeding due to the lack of scientific information on the safety of the supplement.


Centrophenoxine is not an FDA approved drug and does not have a standard dosage amount. For the most accurate dosage, it is recommended to take the supplement under the guidance of a healthcare provider. Otherwise, the usual dose in clinical trials was 600 mg to 2,000 mg a day, these doses were typically divided in half, and one was taken at breakfast and another at lunch. The standard capsule of the nootropic will usually contain 200 to 300 mg of the supplement.

Overall, Centrophenoxine shows promising potential as a potent treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative brain disorders. While more research is needed to prove the benefits and relative safety of the nootropic, currently, is it noted as relatively safe to consume.

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