21Dec

Huperzine A: Usage, Benefits & Dosage

Huperzine A is a dietary supplement extracted from a Chinese plant called Huperzia Serrata or Chinese club moss. Chinese club moss is a traditional medicine used to reduce inflammation, sharpen memory, and deliver other health benefits.

It captured the attention of Alzheimer’s research scientists who reported that the compound could reverse the cognitive decline issues associated with neurodegenerative disorders like dementia. According to some preliminary data, Huperzine A can inhibit the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine. By combating this enzyme, it effectively promotes the actions of acetylcholine to improve memory, attention, and learning ability.

Huperzine A jar

There have also been reports that Huperzine A could be an effective memory booster in healthy individuals. That’s why the drug is also sold as a nootropic. However, the scientific evidence backing its effectiveness for this purpose is very limited.

It is also known by the names HupA, Huperzine, Selagine, and Huperzina A.

Uses and Benefits of Huperzine A

According to the limited scientific data available at the moment, it may be beneficial for:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

Huperzine A is believed to be a potential treatment for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Other than treating the condition, it may also help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s in people who are already at a predisposed risk.

Huperzine A might be useful for this purpose due to its impact on the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The compound reduces the activities of the chemical Cholinesterase. This increases the levels of acetylcholine hence improving key cognitive functions. In doing so, Huperzine A reverses Alzheimer’s symptoms such as memory loss, poor concentration, and learning impairment.

The biggest challenge with Huperzine A is the lack of large-scale human trials to support its efficacy. There have been a few human studies involving subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, but these studies are not of the highest quality. For instance, this trial involving 454 Alzheimer’s patients reported improved cognitive functions and functional performance without any adverse events, but the study had several shortcomings. In the end, the researchers recommended more rigorous and randomized trials for more reliable results.

A few studies have also produced contradicting results showing the product did not have a significant impact on the cognitive functions of Alzheimer’s patients.

It’s clear that the only way to know how beneficial Huperzine A might be for Alzheimer’s patients is through thorough clinical trials. They will also help us understand the safety profile of the drug better. Hopefully, we’ll see more of these trials in the near future.

  • Memory Enhancement

Huperzine A may boost memory and cognition in healthy individuals, including students and professionals. It can also promote normal cognitive functions in aging people, a population where age-related cognitive decline is very common.

Of course, these claims stem from the reported Huperzine A’s mechanism of action that involves increasing the learning neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The only problem is that there haven’t been many clinical trials investigating this effect. Only one trial has reported the memory enhancement abilities of Huperzine A in healthy individuals. The trial had a very small sample size of just 34 adolescent students.

In addition to the above uses, Huperzine A is also purported to be beneficial for:

  • Treating psychiatric disorders like depression and Schizophrenia
  • Increasing mental alertness and energy
  • Improving neuroprotection
  • Fighting cocaine use disorder
  • Fighting glutamate toxicity
  • Treating myasthenia gravis. An autoimmune disorder causing rapid fatigue and weakness of muscles

Side Effects

Huperzine A is generally safe and well-tolerated when taken appropriately.

In some rare cases, this nootropic can produce side effects like blurred vision, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, sweating, nausea, slurred speech, restlessness, dizziness, high blood pressure, slowed heart rate, sleep disturbance, and loss of appetite. The safety profile of Huperzine A is not known 100%, but reports show the risk of adverse reactions increase when the drug is abused. Long-term effects of the drug are also not known.

As a safety precaution, pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid this drug. Individuals with existing medical conditions like seizure disorder, stomach ulcers, and cardiovascular diseases are also advised against using Huperzine A. In summary, do not use this drug without a doctor’s approval if you have any medical condition.

Dosage

Huperzine A is usually administered orally, but you can also use it through injections. There are no official dosages that are guaranteed to be safe and effective for everyone. Based on anecdotal experiences and a few of the available studies, a dosage of around 100mcg taken twice daily is said to be most effective for memory enhancement. For Alzheimer’s disease, dosages of between 300mcg and 500mcg taken twice per day are recommended.

To treat Myasthenia Gravis, Huperzine A is administered through intramuscular injections. The dosages used here are typically low. You should only use Huperzine A for this purpose with a doctor’s permission and supervision.

Final Thoughts

This product is a drug with so much potential but not enough clinical data backing it. For that reason, we’ll encourage you to speak to a licensed physician about a possible alternative, especially if you are looking to treat a medical condition like Alzheimer’s disease or Myasthenia Gravis.

For the people who want to use it for its potential nootropic benefits, make sure to take it in the right dosages and for short-term. Stop using the drug if you experience any severe side effects.

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References

  1. https://www.alzforum.org/therapeutics/huperzine
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/expert-answers/huperzine-a/faq-20058259
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/huperzine-a
19Dec

Pramiracetam: Uses, Dosage and Benefits

Pramiracetam belongs to the popular family of nootropics called “racetams.” This is the same family that Piracetam, a well-known nootropic, belongs to. Actually, Primaracetam was synthesized from Piracetam.

Pramiracetam was developed back in 1979 by a division of Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company called Parke-Davis. It is sold under the brand name Pramistar. In 2000, Warner-Lambert and Pfizer merged their operations, so the drug is now under Pfizer.

It has been subjected to various studies, most of which are done on animals. From the early studies, the researchers observed its powerful cognitive-enhancing effects. The data even showed it to be more potent than the original racetam drug Piracetam. Sadly, these studies were limited to animal subjects, and they are also not of the highest quality, so they’re not very reliable.

Pramiracetam jar

That said, there are still many trials and some anecdotal evidence showing how useful Pramiracetam can be. It can boost cognitive functions like memory formation and retrieval in healthy adults. It may also be effective in treating Alzheimer’s symptoms, such as memory loss and difficulty in learning. Some reports also suggest it can treat central nervous system disorders and symptoms of brain injury.

The FDA has not approved the use of Pramiracetam in the medical field. However, the drug is available as a dietary supplement. Pramiracetam is also not approved in Canada, but people can import it for personal use. It’s only in Europe where Pramiracetam has been approved as a prescription drug to treat Alzheimer’s and neurological issues like memory problems, ADHD, and dyslexia.

Other than Pramistar, Pramiracetam is also sold under the brand names Remen and Neupramir.

Mechanism of Action

Pramiracetam has a unique mechanism of action. It’s even different from other nootropics. Instead of increasing neurotransmitter secretion directly – as is the case with some racetams – it stimulates the high-affinity choline uptake, a precursor to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in cognitive functions like memory formation, concentration, and learning ability. Therefore, an increase in acetylcholine should boost cognition.

Scientists have also suggested other possible effects that it may have on the brain. For instance, this study reports how the nootropic increases the activities of nitric oxide synthase, which boosts NO levels in the brain. An increase in NO boosts cerebral blood flow, which is critical for maintaining brain cells and neurons.

Uses and Benefits

Pramiracetam may be beneficial in the following ways:

  • Memory Enhancement

Pramiracetam is reported to be a great memory enhancer in various animal studies and a few clinical trials. In this animal study, Pramiracetam was used in dosages of 7.5 mg per kg and 15mg per kg in rats for around 7 weeks. The researchers investigated the drug’s effects on the rat’s short-term (working) and long-term (reference) memory. At the end of the study, they observed a significant boost in long-term memory. Although there was no significant difference in working memory, the results showed the promising effects of the nootropic in both spatial learning and memory.

The effects of the nootropic in humans have also been investigated. For instance, this double-blind placebo-controlled trial looked at the impact of Pramiracetam sulphate on four young men with memory and cognitive issues caused by brain injuries. They were given a dosage of 400mg TID for 18 months. A significant improvement in memory was observed during the trial and up to a month after the treatment was discontinued.

By no means are these trials enough, but they paint a really good picture of just how useful Pramiracetam could be. User experiences also suggest that it can work even in healthy people.

  • Supporting Brain Injury Recovery

The nootropic can be very helpful for people with mild and severe brain injuries. It’s even reported to be more effective than Piracetam at reducing dizziness, nausea, headaches, and other symptoms of brain concussion.

It can also reverse the symptoms of Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency since it boosts blood flow in the brain. Individuals at a predisposed risk of developing the condition may also use the nootropic as a prevention measure.

  • Boosting Neuroprotection

Pramiracetam can offer neuroprotection in both healthy and unhealthy individuals. This has been observed in animal and human trials.

The drug can protect the brain against toxins and other drugs. For example, Pramiracetam reduced amnesic effects stimulated by the drug Scopolamine in healthy individuals.

Animal trials also showed Pramiracetam could protect the brain against memory loss induced by electric shocks.

Side Effects

Most of the studies involving the nootropic did not report any severe side effects. In a few rare cases, the users experienced dizziness, nausea, headaches, sleep disturbance, GI distress, and nervousness.

Taking the drug in high doses and for prolonged periods can increase your tolerance.

You can reduce the risk of adverse reactions by using low dosages. Some people also combine Pramiracetam with some choline nootropics to reduce side effects and boost the results at the same time.

Do not take Pramiracetam without a doctor’s approval if you’re already taking medications for a different condition.

Dosage

Based on the available trials, Pramiracetam can be used in 1200mg dosages.

Pramiracetam’s half-life is between 4 and 7 hours, so it’s best to split the dosage into two or three servings of 600mg or 400mg, respectively.

Final Thoughts

The nootropic is a drug with so much potential. It can be highly beneficial to healthy people as well as individuals with Alzheimer’s, dementia, brain injuries, chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, etc. However, clinical data on the drug is very limited, and that’s why we encourage you to use it very carefully and under the guidance of a licensed medical practitioner.

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References

  1. https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Pramiracetam
  2. https://examine.com/supplements/pramiracetam/
  3. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322179918_The_effect_of_pramiracetam_in_the_myelination_of_the_hippocampus_in_the_BALBc_mouse_Mus_musculus
16Dec

CDP Choline: Dosage, Benefits and Side effects

What is CDP Choline?

CDP-Choline is also known by the names Citicoline, CDPC, Citicholine, Citicolina, and Cytidine 5-Diphosphocoline. This chemical is naturally produced in the body. The amount of Citicoline produced by the body is usually not enough to fully meet all the needs. Luckily, you can still get Citicoline through various food sources, including eggs, chicken, fish, whole grains, and beans. Alternatively, you can use supplements. CDP-Choline is available as an oral supplement and intravenous injection. Most people opt for oral supplements because they are easier to buy and friendlier to use.

CDP-Choline has been linked to a myriad of health benefits. The chemical is believed to be a powerful nootropic that can boost different brain functions in both healthy adults and seniors with neurodegenerative disorders. Healthy adults use CDP-Choline supplements to boost memory formation and retrieval, thinking, learning ability, attention, and other brain functions. The drug has actually been used as a nootropic for quite some time now despite the serious limitations in scientific studies.

Since the drug can boost brain functions, researchers believe that it is also effective for reversing the cognitive decline caused by Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s, and other types of dementia. It’s also reported to be effective for glaucoma and attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD).

Some countries in Europe and Asia use CDP-Choline as a prescription drug to treat memory loss and improve brain functions in patients recovering from a stroke. It was actually developed in Japan before it was introduced as a prescription drug in European countries. In the US, CDP Choline is popular as a dietary supplement. This means you can buy it from online stores without a doctor’s prescription. The biggest challenge here is that the buyers need to be wary of the quality of the chemical they are buying. Most of the dietary supplement manufacturers do not meet the industry’s standards, so it’s essential to make sure you are getting Citicoline from the right store to avoid medical complications.

How Does It Work?

CDP-Choline is one of only three phospholipids that contain choline that can be supplemented orally. The other two are Phosphatidylcholine and Alpha-GPC. Citicoline is very complex, even more than alpha-GPC. The version of Citicoline, sold as a dietary supplement, is very similar to the one produced by your brain. When you ingest this drug, it’s broken down into choline and cytidine, which cross the blood brain barrier. They are then used to make phospholipids and citicoline (the one produced by the brain).

The drug also promotes acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and other neurotransmitters to boost the nervous system and cognitive functions. It also protects the nervous system by preserving sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine producing myelin, which protects the nerves. It also fights oxidative stress by boosting glutathione.

Studies have also shown CDP-Choline increases the supply of blood in the brain. This helps in keeping the brain cells nourished and functioning optimally at all times. It’s one of the reasons why Citicoline has proven to be effective in dealing with stroke.

It also stimulates the mitochondria to boost energy levels.

What are the benefits of CDP Choline?

CDP Choline has been linked to the following health benefits:

  • Improved Cognitive Performance

CDP Choline is a unique nootropic that can boost cognitive performance in both seniors and healthy adults. Age-related cognitive decline is very common. Old people tend to lose their memory quite easily, and they also struggle with retaining attention, thinking, and other brain functions. Studies point out that CDP choline can reverse these issues by increasing blood flow to the brain and boosting key neurotransmitters like acetylcholine and dopamine. It fights oxidative damage and strengthens the nerve membranes to make sure your CNS is functioning optimally.

Several trials support the cognitive-enhancing abilities of CDP Choline. However, all the trials recommend additional human studies to fully understand how the drug can be used safely, especially in old people. Anecdotal evidence is also very compelling, with many healthy adults reporting great results.

  • Recovery from Stroke

CDP-Choline was developed in Japan for treating stroke. It boosts blood supply in the brain to reverse the effects of stroke. It also strengthens the nerve membranes and fights free radicals, which cause oxidative damage.

Several studies have been carried out to investigate the efficacy of CDP-Choline on patients who have suffered a stroke. In this study, the researchers concluded that if taken within 24 hours of suffering an acute ischemic stroke, CDP-Choline can increase your chances of a full recovery by up to 27.9%! In the study, the scientists used 2000mg.

  • Treating Glaucoma

CDP Choline can reverse vision problems such as glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and amblyopia or “lazy eye.” Citicoline can protect and repair optic nerve damage that causes these conditions. It can also sharpen your vision. Additional research on this subject is warranted.

  • Slowing Down Alzheimer’s Disease

Citicoline can be used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. Studies already show that it can increase memory, thinking, attention, and other brain functions linked to dementia patients. The drug also improves blood circulation in the brain and protects the brain cells and nerves from oxidative damage. Therefore, CDP Choline isn’t just beneficial for people who are already showing symptoms of dementia, but it can also protect healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of developing the condition.

Citicoline is also believed to be effective in treating Multiple Sclerosis because it controls inflammatory molecules like histamine and IL1B.

  • Treating Mental Disorders

Citicoline can be effective for mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. The drug promotes key neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline to enhance your mood and emotions.

There is also some limited evidence suggesting Citicoline can be used for:

  • Treating substance use disorder
  • Treating head trauma
  • Supporting recovery after a surgery

CDP Choline Side Effects

Most of the people who take Citicoline by mouth do not experience any serious side effects. Not everyone will have a smooth experience with the drug, though. Some people may experience headaches, insomnia, nausea, stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation, chest pains, blurred vision, and a foul body odor. It may also cause your blood pressure to drop.

It’s best to use CDP Choline in the right dosages and for a short term – not more than 90 days.

Pregnant and nursing mothers should avoid Citicoline. You should also consult your physician before taking it if you are already under other medications.

Dosage

CDP Choline dosages vary depending on your condition and other factors. For instance, if you want to boost cognition, you should take between 250 to 1000mg per day. For Alzheimer’s disease, scientists recommended about 1000mg per day. To treat age-related cognitive impairment, most people take between 1000 and 2000mg per day.

If you are a healthy individual taking Citicoline as a dietary supplement to boost cognitive functions, start with the lowest dosage, and increase it gradually.

If you want to treat or prevent a medical condition like Alzheimer’s, mental disorders, and glaucoma, the smart thing to do is consulting a physician and letting them give you a guide on how to dose the drug appropriately. They will also help you understand some of your other options.

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15Dec

Fladrafinil: Dosage, Usage and Benefits

Fladrafinil is a nootropic or “smart drug” classified as a eugeroic. Eugeroics are drugs that increase wakefulness and alertness. They help the user feel sharper and more alert, and this naturally makes them very popular among students and professionals. Other great examples of eugeroics are Modafinil and Adrafinil CR-40028. Modafinil is an extremely popular nootropic, but studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that Fladrafinil is the more potent afinil.

Fladrafinil was first developed in the 1970s by a French Pharmaceutical firm called Lafon Laboratories. It is very similar to Adrafinil, with both of them showing the same neuropsychopharmacological properties. However, Fladrafinil has some anti-aggressive effects that make it slightly different from Adrafinil.

Fladrafinil is also known by the names Fluorafinil and CRL 40,941.

How Does It Work?

Research suggests that Fladrafinil prevents the breakdown of a neurotransmitter called dopamine, which controls functions such as learning, attention, and emotional responses.

Benefits of Fladrafinil

Fladrafinil is the nootropic of choice for some people because it is extremely powerful. Some data shows it is more potent than both Modafinil and Adrafinil!

You can use the drug to:

  • Increase your alertness

Fladrafinil increases your mental alertness significantly. It almost acts like a stimulant, except it does not produce the side effects associated with stimulants like caffeine.

  • Improves Wakefulness

As a eugeroic, Fladrafinil increases your ability to remain awake and productive. The drug has proven to be very effective for shift workers. It can also be used to prevent daytime sleepiness.

  • Boost concentration and focus

You could be awake, but if your brain cannot concentrate or focus, you won’t be very productive. Fladrafinil is one of a few very effective nootropics that can increase your mental concentration and focus. It allows you to grey out the distractions and focus on the task at hand. This will dramatically improve your ability to study, work, and do other mentally engaging activities.

  • Improve memory formation and recall

Fladrafinil improves your ability to form new memories and retrieve old ones. This is not just beneficial to students, CEOs, and other professionals, but it can actually be very helpful to seniors. Many old people struggle with memory loss due to brain damage, Alzheimer’s disease, and other forms of dementia. Fladrafinil is believed to be effective in boosting memory recall and formation in people of all ages. Therefore, Fladrafinil could help seniors with declining cognitive functions. Additional research is necessary to fully understand the benefits, dosages, and risks of using Fldarafinil, especially among old people.

  • Eases Depression

Fldarafinil inhibits the breakdown of dopamine. In the process, it enhances mood and reduces stress. It also stimulates the release of serotonin, which boosts the feelings of happiness, and overall well-being. An increase in serotonin results in additional benefits like improved sleep quality and an enhanced digestive system.

Other benefits linked to Fladrafinil are:

  • Increased energy levels
  • Improved motivation
  • Reduced aggression

Fladrafinil may be more powerful than Adrafinil and Modafinil, but its biggest drawback is that there is not enough scientific evidence to support its claims. Many people use this drug simply because they believe it is more potent than Modafinil, which is widely used and better studied. However, without clinical studies, it is hard to say whether Fldarafinil can really live up to the hype.

Most of the benefits discussed above are based on anecdotal evidence and the mere fact that the drug shares some properties with Modafinil and Adrafinil. Therefore, you should control your expectations if you’re planning to use it. You should also take it carefully because, without exhaustive clinical trials, it’s impossible to tell whether Fladrafinil has long-term effects that we don’t know about.

Side Effects of Fladrafinil

Fldarafinil is a generally safe nootropic that produces little to no side effects when used correctly.

Most of the adverse reactions reported by some users are usually mild: Fladrafinil can produce the following side effects when used in high doses:

  • Insomnia
  • Headache
  • Stomach upset
  • Nausea
  • A foul smell in urine

Make sure to consult a medical practitioner before taking Fladrafinil if you are already taking other medications for a different condition.

Dosage

Fladrafinil is available in capsule and powdered form. Being more powerful than Adrafinil and Modafinil, users are encouraged to stick to lower dosages to avoid unnecessary complications. You are also advised not to use Fladrafinil for more than a week.

The ideal dosage for most people is 30 to 80mg per day. Start with 30mg if it’s our first time using the drug. You can proceed to increase the dosage gradually if you are not showing any side effects. Do not take more than 200mg per day, though.

It’s advisable to take Fldarafinil in the morning. This prevents the drug from messing up with your sleeping pattern. Shift workers should make the right calculations and take the drug at the right time as well. The half-life is 12 to 16 hours.

Final Thoughts

From the Fladrafinil reviews, it’s clear that the drug can be very beneficial, and it’s also quite safe. However, that’s not enough to make up for the lack of enough clinical trials. The lack of sufficient scientific evidence is a major concern, and that’s why some people still opt for Adrafinil and Modafinil. Let’s hope we’ll see more trials on this drug in the near future.

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15Dec

Coluracetam: Usage, Dosage and Benefits

Racetams are a popular class of nootropics used to enhance cognitive functions and counter cognitive decline in seniors. Piracetam and Aniracetam are among the most popular racetam drugs. One of the lesser-known racetams is Coluractem, which has been around since the 1990s. It is not as well-studied as some of the other nootropics, but it is still linked to several brilliant cognitive-enhancing properties that may benefit both healthy adults and old people.

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a fat-soluble racetam drug developed in Japan in the 1990s for the treatment of Alzheimer’s. In the last few years, the research on this drug has shifted to its anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects. In one of the trials which were carried out by Brain Cells Inc., Coluracetam was reported to be effective in treating major depressive disorder. Sadly, the full results from this trial were never published, and the company, Brain Cells Inc. shut down in 2014. There haven’t been many follow up studies since then.

Today, Coluracetam is mostly used as a dietary supplement for boosting motivation, mood, memory, and learning ability. It’s also believed that Coluracetam can reverse vision difficulties.

In some countries like the UK and Canada, you cannot buy the drug without a doctor’s prescription. Some people still import it though under the name Coluracetam, BCI-540, or MKC-231.

Compared to other racetams, Coluracetam is very potent and fast-acting. You only need to take a small dosage of this drug to feel its effects, which set in a lot faster. Data shows that Coluracetam levels in the plasma increase significantly in just 30 minutes after ingestion.

How Does It Work?

Coluracetam increases the high-affinity choline transporter molecule (CHT1), which acts on the high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) system to boost choline uptake. By increasing the amount of choline being drawn into the neurons, effectively boosting the levels of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and other brain functions. Scientists believe this is how it helps reverse the effects of cognitive decline that Alzheimer’s disease is known for. However, both animal and human studies are seriously lacking, so we still don’t know how effective and beneficial Coluractem really is.

It’s also believed that it protects NMDA receptors against glutamate cytotoxicity. This should protect you against brain diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer’s, and traumatic brain injury.

Benefits

The following Coluracetam benefits have been observed in limited animal trials and anecdotal experiences:

  • Improving Memory and Learning

In this study, scientists investigated the effects of Coluracetam on rats treated with a cholinergic neurotoxin AF64A. Basically, these rats had a nerve toxin that had seriously affected the choline uptake system. The rats were given 1 and 3mg per kg for several days. At the end of the study, the researchers noted a significant improvement in both learning and memory, which had been affected by the damaged choline uptake system. Interestingly, the effects were observed even after the treatment ended.

The results also suggested that the product may be beneficial in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s patients are known to have low acetylcholine levels, something that Coluracteam can fix by increasing choline uptake and the enzyme ChAT. The drug may also protect individuals who are at a predisposed risk of developing Alzheimer’s.

From these studies, we can tell that Coluracetam could boost learning and memory in individuals with different conditions. Unfortunately, the scientific evidence is still not enough.

While it could be useful in people with Alzheimer’s and nerve toxins, there is no evidence suggesting it could be just as helpful in healthy adults. Anecdotal experiences are also mixed. This puts serious questions on the Coluracetam’s efficacy as a dietary supplement.

  • Fighting Depression and Anxiety

In animal studies, Coluracetam had a bigger impact (20%) in treating anxiety as compared to the prescription drug Valium (Diazepam) (12%).

Another study also showed that Coluracetam could treat depression and anxiety in individuals who are resistant to other treatments. This study involved patients with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. They were given 240mg per day, which was split into three servings.

Coluracetam is a very promising drug for treating depression and anxiety, but we will advise you to consult a physician before using it for this purpose.

  • Boosting Eyesight

MKC-231 may boost optical vividness, shape recognition, and color vision, but the scientific evidence on this subject is inconclusive.

Side Effects

Most of the studies involving Coluracetam did not report any severe side effects. However, from anecdotal reports, some people experience brain fog, nausea, low mood, and sleep disturbance. Racetams are known to cause headaches when used in high doses, so the same may also be witnessed by Coluracetam users.

You can minimize the risk of these adverse reactions by taking the drug in low dosages. You should also consult your physician before taking Coluracetam. This is especially vital for people who are already using other drugs.

Pregnant and nursing mothers should avoid Coluracetam.

Dosage

There is no official dosage for Coluracetam that’s guaranteed to work for everyone. However, from anecdotal evidence, most people seem to enjoy the Coluracetam effects in dosages of between 5 to 20 mg administered orally.

Use lower dosages if you are taking the drug sublingually.

Can You Stack Coluracetam?

Yes, some people stack Coluracetam with other nootropics to intensify the results. In fact, it’s believed that combining Coluracetam with choline supplement like Alpha GPC can increase the results and reduce the risk of headaches and other side effects. Some people also combine it with racetams.

It’s advisable to speak with a doctor first before combining any nootropics.

Final Thoughts

Coluracetam is nowhere as popular as other racetams, and this is a big challenge because it means we do not have a lot of anecdotal evidence to rely on. Human and animal trials are also very limited. We cannot ignore the potential benefits of the drug, though. So, if you decide to join other people in using Coluracetam, we’ll urge you to use the drug extra carefully to avoid unnecessary complications. It’s also best to speak with a licensed physician before you start taking it for any purpose.

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13Dec

Agomelatine: Dosage, Benefits and Usage

What is Agomelatine?

Agomelatine or Valdoxan is an antidepressant with a very unique working mechanism. Most of the antidepressant drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). In other words, they prevent the reabsorption of serotonin into the neurons. This means more of the neurotransmitter remains available to promote the transmission of signals between nerve cells. In the process, the neurotransmitter enhances mood and emotions. The product, on the other hand, activates MT1 and MT2. Some scientists also believe that it blocks 5-HT2C serotonin receptors. The uniqueness of its mechanism of action suggests that it may be a good alternative for people who are not responding to SSRIs. There isn’t enough evidence to support its efficacy, though.

Agomelatine is approved in Europe for treating major depression. It is also used as a prescription drug in Australia. In the United States, Agomelatine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration, but you can buy it as a dietary supplement.

Mechanism of Action

Agomelatine’s working mechanism is not fully understood, but studies suggest that it relieves depression by blocking 5-HT2C receptors on the noradrenergic and dopaminergic pathways. In doing so, it boosts the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. This improves mood and emotions. It may also have some cognitive boosting effects.

It also acts on melatonergic M1 and M2 in a similar manner as melatonin. However, it is more powerful than melatonin and has a longer half-life, so it should theoretically have a bigger and better impact.

Additional research is necessary to comprehensively understand how the supplement affects the brain.

Benefits

Agomelatine may be beneficial in treating the following conditions:

  • Mood Disorders

Agomelatine is used in Europe to treat major depressive episodes. It is also believed to be effective for acute bipolar depression, unipolar and bipolar depression, and even alcohol dependence, as seen in this study.

Today, SSRIs are the commonly used antidepressants because they produce results without too many risks. Agomelatine may be helpful, but without sufficient clinical evidence, it’s hard to tell whether they are better than SSRIs. We also don’t know how safe they are, especially in the long-term.

  • Anxiety Disorder

Agomelatine can be useful in treating depression-related anxiety as well as generalized anxiety disorder. For depression-related anxiety, Agomelatine is more effective as an adjunctive treatment. As seen in this trial, the nootropic isn’t just showing great anti-anxiety effects, but it actually performs better than some antidepressant drugs!

In this randomized, double-blind study, patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder were given 25 to 50mg per day for 12 weeks. The research produced some very interesting results. Scientists observed that the nootropic was very well tolerated. The adverse events experienced were no different from the placebo. They also compared the results to an antidepressant drug Escitalopram and realized the patients taking Escitalopram experienced more adverse events than the people on Agomelatine. In terms of the desired outcomes, it was concluded that Agomelatine was, at the very least, as efficacious as Escitalopram.

These studies are really promising, but they are not of the highest quality. Agomelatine may be as beneficial and safe as reported here, but it may be wiser to hold on from using it until we have bigger and more reliable clinical trials.

  • Inflammation

Animal trials report the product can reduce inflammation by deactivating NF-kB and decreasing inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6, which are stimulated by Lipopolysaccharides. This makes it a potential treatment for inflammation. It may also aid with metabolic conditions like obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes.

  • Fibromyalgia

The product may be helpful in adjunctive therapies for treating neuropathic pain induced by fibromyalgia. This may be due to the drug’s effects on the serotonergic receptor 5-HT2C.

Other benefits linked to Agomelatine include:

  • Increased dopamine and norepinephrine boost motivation and mood.
  • Increased IGF-1 and Growth Hormone (GH) levels boost sleep quality, muscle strength, bone mineral density, etc.
  • Improved synaptic plasticity, which would improve cognitive functions like learning, memory, decision making, etc.

Side Effects

It has has been linked to various side effects that range from mild to severe. Some of the possible mild side effects of the drug are back pain, diarrhea, drowsiness, excessive sweating, fatigue, insomnia, migraines, nausea, anxiety, and constipation.

The drug is also associated with severe side effects like liver damage. It may increase liver enzymes and affect the performance of this vital organ. Some of the symptoms you should watch out for here are light-colored stool, dark urine, and changes in the color of your skin and eyes.

To avoid liver damage, all users should undergo a liver function test before the treatment is started. The tests should be done after every few weeks.

It may also increase the risk of suicide.

Dosage

Agomelatine is usually effective at dosages of 25mg per day taken just before bedtime. The dosage can be increased to 50mg per day if 25mg is not producing the desired results.

What if I miss a dose? Well, you should take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it’s almost time for the next dosage, do not take extra tablets to make up for the missed dosage. Just take the next dose as usual.

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13Dec

Vinpocetine: Dosage, Benefits and Usage

Vinpocetine is a synthetic compound derived from vincamine, an ingredient found in lesser periwinkle plant. The compound was isolated back in 1975, and it has since been used for different purposes in different parts of the world. In the US, Vinpocetine was acknowledged as a dietary supplement by the FDA in the 1990s. However, following additional studies, the FDA went back and issued several warnings. In 2019, they reported that Vinpocetine was unsafe for pregnant women and women who may become pregnant. Despite the warnings, a good number of people still use the drug due to its potential health benefits.

Vinpocetine is legal in most countries outside the US, where it is sold under the brand name Cavinton. In Europe, countries such as Germany prescribe Vinpocetine to enhance blood flow in the brain. The drug is also legal in Asian countries like Japan. Meanwhile, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia have banned it.

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Rodent and human trials have suggested several working mechanisms that make Vinpocetine beneficial. According to some trials, Vinpocetine decreases the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate to a healthy range. The presence of these neurotransmitters at high levels causes excitotoxicity and increases the risk of oxidative damage on brain cells.

This study also showed that Vinpocetine inhibits PDE1 and increases the concentration of cyclic GMP (cGMP). This widens the blood vessels allowing for more blood flow in different parts of the brain. That’s why Vinpocetine has been linked to cognitive-enhancing and cardio-protective benefits.

According to multiple trials, Vinpocetine improves the flow of key electrolytes by blocking several ion channels, including Potassium, Sodium, and L-type calcium channels. It also reduces inflammation by preventing the activation of IKKβ and transportation of NF-kB through cell membranes.

Benefits of Vinpocetine

Vinpocetine has been linked to several health benefits, but human trials supporting these claims are seriously lacking. The compound is said to be effective for:

  • Boosting Blood Flow in The Brain

Studies have proved that Vinpocetine can cross the blood-brain barrier. It’s actually very fast-acting, with the studies showing that it can reach the brain in just 2 minutes after taking an IV dose. It reaches several parts of the brain, including the visual cortex, basal ganglia, and putamen. These areas will experience an increase in blood flow, which enhances various brain functions.

As an advantage of improved blood flow, the brain cells get to enjoy increased oxygenation. This explains why Vinpocetine is believed to be beneficial not just as a nootropic but also in dealing with conditions like stroke.

Studies have also proved that Vinpocetine boosts blood flow and oxygenation without interfering with blood pressure.

  • Slowing Down Cognitive Decline

Vinpocetine is believed to be effective for slowing down cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of Dementia. The results are especially compelling in subjects with chronic blood flow insufficiency.

In this relatively large-scale study involving almost 5000 subjects with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, Vinpocetine was administered in two phases. First, the subjects were given intravenous infusions for a week. They were started with a dosage of 25 mg per day in the first four days before it was increased to 50mg for the remaining 3 days. The IV infusions were then replaced with oral administration for 90 days at 30mg per day. At the end of the study, the scientists observed a significant improvement in Tinneti Scale and MMSE scores and decreased neurological symptoms. In other words, the symptoms of cognitive decline reduced significantly.

It makes sense that Vinpocetine can slow down cognitive decline because it boosts blood flow and oxygenation in the brain. However, the studies are quite limited, and that’s why the drug is not widely used.

You are free to discuss the potential benefits and risks of taking this drug for this purpose with your doctor if you live in a country where it is banned. For the people living in places where Vinpocetine is legal, you must use it as directed because the lack of sufficient clinical trials could mean the drug is dangerous at high doses or when used for prolonged durations.

  • Improving Memory

A few studies have linked Vinpocetine to improved short and long-term memory in healthy individuals. Researchers believe that Vinpocetine can boost short-term memory when taken with ginkgo. It can also reverse the short-term memory impairment effect stimulated by a sedative known as Flunitrazepam.

In addition to boosting memory, Vinpocetine increased memory scanning speed in healthy volunteers.

The trials suggest that Vinpocetine improves memory by inhibiting calcium and sodium ion channels. The biggest challenge here is most of these studies are small-scale, so they’re hardly reliable.

Other possible potential benefits of taking Vinpocetine are:

  • Offers protection against hearing loss
  • Relieves headaches
  • Improves reaction time
  • May offer some anti-inflammation protection.
  • May boost resting metabolic rate (RMR) to aid fat loss
  • Motion sickness

More clinical trials are necessary to ascertain the effectiveness of the drug for these conditions.

Is Vinpocetine Safe?

Vinpocetine appears to be a safe drug when taken properly and in the short-term. Most of the studies looking into the compound did not produce any severe side effects.

However, in some cases, Vinpocetine can stimulate adverse reactions such as insomnia, facial flushing, dizziness, anxiety, indigestion, nausea, drowsiness, sleep disturbance, and headaches.

High doses of Vinpocetine administered intravenously can cause severe side effects like reduced heart rate and blood pressure, which can be fatal. You must always consult a licensed physician when taking Vinpocetine intravenously.

Pregnant and nursing mothers should not use Vinpocetine. Individuals with pre-existing medical conditions should also consult a medical practitioner before taking Vinpocetine.

Vinpocetine can interact with drugs that slow blood clotting, i.e., Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, so make sure to discuss your medical history with a physician exhaustively before taking the drug. Let them know of any medications you could be using; prescription, non-prescription, and even herbal products or dietary supplements.

Dosage

The ideal dosage for improving memory, reducing cognitive decline, and slowing down the progression of Alzheimer’s is 5-10mg taken three times daily by mouth. In Europe, physicians can prescribe up to 15mg taken three times every day. The drug has a very short half-life of fewer than 2 hours, so you have to split the dosage into three servings.

For the best results, you should take Vinpocetine with a meal to increase its bioavailability.

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08Dec

Omberacetam (Noopept) : Dosage, Usage and Benefits

Nootropics or “Smart Drugs” are substances used for enhancing cognitive functions. They stimulate different parts of the brain to improve your memory, learning ability, decision-making, and mood. Some of them are also used as neuroprotective drugs, and that’s why some nootropics are commonly taken to treat neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease.

Nootropics can either be natural or synthetic. Natural nootropics are formulated using organic or plant-based ingredients. On the other hand, synthetic nootropics are made in laboratories. Both of them work almost the same way to deliver the desired results.

Omberacetam is a great example of a synthetic nootropic.

noopept

What is Noopept?

Noopept is one of the fastest-acting nootropics on the market. It was developed back in the 1990s by T.A Gudasheva from a Russian firm called Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology. The chemical structure of Noopept is based on another popular nootropic known as Piracetam. Sometimes the two are even confused, but they are not the same. Noopept is superior in that it is more potent (up to 1000 times more powerful than Piracetam!), and it has a shorter half-life. People use small doses of Noopept and still get to experience its full effects.

The drug has an extremely short half-life, so it leaves your system a lot faster than Piracetam does. However, one of the Noopepts metabolites called cycloprolyglycine (cPG) remains at high levels in the brain. Studies show that this metabolite is responsible for the many long-term cognitive benefits of Noopept.

We must point out that the research on Noopept is very limited. The suggested mechanism of action plus the effects of this drug are mostly based on animal studies. However, from the little research and anecdotal evidence available, it’s evident that the nootropic is a very promising drug with lots of potential. Many users report feeling increased energy levels and alertness in under an hour of taking the drug. It helps them acquire and process more information a lot faster than they usually do. Also, unlike Piracetam, the risk of experiencing psychostimulatory side effects is much lower when using Omberacetam.

Research also shows that Noopept can deliver neuroprotective benefits making it an interesting prospect for Alzheimer’s researchers.

How Does It Work?

The working mechanism of Noopept is not 100% understood because of how complex the brain works. However, multiple studies have provided a few details showing how this drug can enhance cognitive functions.

Some studies report that the nootropic improves neural responses to a neurotransmitter known as acetylcholine. Acetylcholine plays a vital role in various cognitive functions, such as learning. Therefore, by boosting neural responses to the neurotransmitter, Noopept improves your ability to learn, and it promotes other aspects of your cognition.

NGF and BDNF are vital neurotrophin proteins that enhance your memory and cognition. Omberacetam is also said to increase the expression of both NGF and BDNF neurotrophin proteins.

It modulates the activities of two glutamate receptors; AMPA and NMDA. The receptors regulate synaptic plasticity, which helps with learning and memory. By modulating the receptors, Noopept also prevents neuronal damage caused by glutamate toxicity.

Finally, Noopept has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that provide neuroprotection. They prevent inflammation of the brain and oxidative stress; both are known to damage brain cells and affect cognition.

Benefits

  1. Improves Learning and Memory

Noopept improves memory and learning ability by enhancing neuroplasticity. It increases your ability to form new memories and retrieve old memories with ease.

The product also improves your ability to absorbs details and process information. This is a useful benefit not just to students and professionals but also for old/senior people who have a hard time remembering some basic details.

One significant benefit Omberacetam has over Piracetam is it improves the different phases of information processing, i.e., initial processing, consolidation, and retrieval.

Users also report improved sensory perception. Both hearing and vision improve significantly.

  1. Boosts Neuroprotection

Omberacetam is a powerful antioxidant that protects the brain against oxidative damage. Oxidative stress is a serious issue linked to cognitive decline and disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

The drug also provides anti-inflammatory protection. Studies show that inflammations in the brain can cause loss of short-term memory, spatial reasoning, and verbal learning.

In addition to offering the above protection, It enhances the functioning of the brain by boosting blood flow to ensure that the cells are nourished at all times.

  1. Relieves Anxiety

Animal studies and a few human trials show that the supplement can reduce anxiety. However, the human trials were done on subjects with mild cognitive disorders, so it’s hard to tell whether the drug will be as effective in healthy people or individuals with advanced cognitive issues.

  1. Enhances Mood

Users report an elevated mood and an increase in motivation. It is still unclear how exactly it achieves this, but it may be a by-product of anxiety relief.

Side Effects

It pept is 1,000 times more powerful than Piracetam, so you must be very careful when dosing it. Taking it in high doses can result in adverse reactions like:

  • Anxiety
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Restlessness
  • Insomnia
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability

Consult a licensed physician before taking Omberacetam if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or taking medications for different conditions.

Dosage

Given this drug’s insane potency, it’s wise to start with low doses of around 5mg taken two or three times a day. You can test the waters with this dosage for 2 days or so. Proceed to increase the dosage to 10mg taken twice/thrice a day if you do not experience any adverse reactions.

It should be taken in small doses several times a day. This is much safer than taking it once in large doses. The drug should also be used for 1.5 to 3 months max, followed by a 1-month break. Taking breaks in-between cycles prevents the buildup of tolerance.

The product should be taken after a meal, and avoid using it in the evening or at night at it can interfere with your sleep.

Where to buy Oberacetam

The only major challenge with the product is the lack of enough clinical trials. This makes it really hard for us to fully understand how exactly it affects the brain and the full short and long-term benefits of using it. That said, the little information available is very promising. Anecdotal evidence is also too compelling to ignore the drug, and that’s why Noopept is worth checking out.

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08Dec

Dihydroxyflavone: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Dihydroxyflavone, particularly 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, is a plant compound currently being researched for its therapeutic ability in central nervous system disorders. While it is still in its clinical research phase, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone has shown promise as being a beneficial supplement for improving memory, executive functions, creativity, and motivation.

Dihydroxyflavone

Medical History

7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, or 7,8-DHF, was discovered by accident by scientists researching a compound comparable to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or BDNF. BDNF helps to promote the growth of neurons and synapses that are vital for healthy cognitive function. But BDNF was having difficulty influencing this growth in animal trials because of its lack of bioavailability and its inability to pass the blood-brain barrier.

It was found that 7,8-dihydroxyflavone not only had efficient oral bioavailability but that it could also pass the blood-brain barrier with ease. This allowed 7,8-DHF to turn on the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors that would prompt an increase in neuron and synapsis growth. It also increased the body’s production of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which antioxidant enzymes as well as enzymes that promote DNA repair.

Benefits

7,8-Dihydroxyflavone has currently only been studied in animal trials, and thus we can not be sure how the compound may affect humans. The research, as of current, denotes possible cognitive health benefits. These potential benefits include:

  • Brain repair for those that sustained a traumatic brain injury.
  • Improved memory and learning while decreasing the mental defects of schizophrenia.
  • Improvement in memory and learning in healthy subjects.
  • Improvement of neuron survival and motor defects attributed to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS.
  • Noted memory improvements in aging subjects or those with Dementia.
  • Helped to decrease inflammation in brain cells.
  • Delayed cognitive and motor impairment in the model subjects for Huntington’s disease.
  • Reduced fat production and build-up.
  • Protection against stroke-related brain damage, with more benefits exhibited in female subjects.
  • Reduced oxidative stress and the formation of amyloid plaque while preventing memory defects and a loss of synapsis in subjects used to model Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Slowing the disease progression and severity of multiple sclerosis, or MS.
  • In subjects used to model Parkinson’s disease, it improved motor function.
  • Reduced depression and depressive behaviors.
  • Increased antioxidant enzyme levels and collagen production while decreasing inflammation in aged skin cells.

The research done to test these benefits used mice and rat subjects with similar cellular or cognitive defects that a human diagnosed with such diseases would have. When animal subjects weren’t beneficial, such as with the research into skin aging, human cells were used instead.

Side Effects

As the Dihydroxyflavone 7,8 has not proceeded yet with human trails, once again, the side effects can only be obtained from the animal research subject. Therefore it is still unknown what types of side effects would be observed in humans as well as any possible drug interactions.

The current observation of side effects in animal subjects includes restlessness, dizziness, overstimulation, irritability, nausea, and trouble sleeping.

Dosage

Dihydroxyflavone, particularly 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, has not been officially approved for human consumption due to the lack of human testing and uncertain benefits and side effects in humans. Because of this, there is no safe and effective recommended dosage, even though the compound is available in powdered and capsule forms.

In animal subjects, 5 mg/kg was given to mice that cognitive issues, 10 mg/kg were given to rats with no cognitive issues, and 30 mg/kg seemed to be the most effective dose in the mouse subject. While it is prudent to confer with a doctor before deciding to consume this compound, the standard dosage in the commercially available supplements recommends 10-30 mg be taken a day.

Overall, dihydroxyflavone, specifically 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, holds a lot of promise as a future beneficial cognitive improvement supplement. More research and human trials will be required to prove its efficiency at improving cognitive function in humans.

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08Dec

DMAA: Usage, Side Effects and Dosage

Methylhexanamine, or DMAA, is a synthetic drug created in a lab, originally used as a nasal decongestant via a nasal spray. It is an amphetamine derivative that is illegal in several countries. It is currently sold as a dietary supplement for increased energy, weight loss, and athletic performance. Due to safety concerns, the FDA is actively working on removing the commercial availability of dietary supplements containing DMAA.

DMAA

Medical History

Created by Eli Lilly and Company in 1948 as a nasal decongestant, DMAA was used for many years until the company voluntarily recalled it in the 1970s. In 2006, it began to be used as a stimulate in various dietary supplements. Many dietary supplement manufacturers claimed that it was a naturally derived compound from the geranium plant and perfectly safe to use. Over time the drug’s safety was put into question due to the adverse effects it was giving users and the five deaths that were, in part, associated with the consumption of supplements containing the drug.

Methylhexanamine is listed under many different names, including 1,3-DMAA, 1,3-Dimethylpentylamine, 4-Methyl-2-hexylamine, Dimethylamylamine, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, 4-Methyl-2-hexanamine, Geranamine, 2-Hexanamine, 4-methyl- (9CI), Methylhexanenamine, and 2-Amino-4-methylhexane. Some companies list the drug under the name of geranium oil, geranium stems, or rose geranium in an attempt to convey its natural creation.

Benefits

Considered an unsafe food additive, the benefit claims of DMAA are unsubstantiated with no research backing them up. The stimulant properties of the drug promote its only possible benefit of it being used for increased energy, similar to that in caffeine. Other potential but unproven benefits of the drug include:

  • Boosting weight loss
  • Improving attention deficit-hyperactive disorder or ADHD
  • Increasing the effectiveness of workouts for bodybuilding
  • Boosting athletic performance
  • More research is needed to validate these benefits. The FDA does not advise consumers to purchase and products containing the drug, citing the lack of information to prove the safety of consuming methylhexanamine.

Side Effects

DMAA is thought to pose many serious safety concerns. The stimulant properties inherent in the drug pose a concern with the possibility of it increasing the chance of an irregular or rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure, and increasing the chance of a stroke or heart attack. Consuming a stimulant such as this drug can cause increased anxiety, trouble sleeping, appetite changes, shortness of breath, chest tightness, jitteriness, and irritability. For individuals that already have issues with their cardiovascular health, it is highly recommended to avoid any kind of supplements containing the drug. Avoidance is also recommended to individuals that are pregnant or breastfeeding, have high blood pressure, or require surgery.

Clinical research indicates that the drug causes an increased heart rate and blood pressure in individuals when consumed. Several reports on the drug have been made connecting it to individuals who had consumed the drug and suffered a severe stroke, a heart attack, a toxic buildup of lactic acid in the body, or death.

Methylhexanamine interacts negatively with other stimulating drugs, including methylphenidate, pseudoephedrines, caffeine, amphetamines, diethylpropion, and phentermine.

Dosage

There is not enough scientific research on the drug to accurately provide a safe, recommended dosage of DMAA. The dosage is depended on the age, sex, health, and various other conditions of the individual wishing to take the drug. A healthcare provider should be sought for guidance on the appropriate dosage guidelines that an individual should follow.

The stimulant drug methylhexanamine is widely regarded by healthcare authorities and the FDA to be an unsafe supplement ingredient. The oral consumption of this drug can increase an individual’s heart rate and blood pressure, and in some individuals, it could lead to serious health complications. The FDA is actively working on banning all supplements that contain the drug for the health and benefit of consumers.

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